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The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes against Men and Women with Arabic Names
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes against men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent CVs of equal merits in a field-experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish-named CVs. Results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced, but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.

Keyword [en]
Employment Gaps, Ethnicity, Gender, Discrimination, Field Experiments
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81486OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-81486DiVA: diva2:561946
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ethnic Discrimination, Name Change and Labor Market Inequality: Mixed approaches to ethnic exclusion in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic Discrimination, Name Change and Labor Market Inequality: Mixed approaches to ethnic exclusion in Sweden
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four empirical studies on ethnic integration in the Swedish labor market. Studies I-III draw on a field experiment testing ethnic discrimination in the hiring process.

Study I documents the existence of employer discrimination in response to equally merited applications with Arabic/African or Swedish names, and shows that foreign-named applicants have to send twice as many applications to receive a callback compared to Swedish-named applicants. Results also suggest that employers in female-dense occupations practice ethnic and gender compensation while employers in male-dense occupations practice only gender compensation.

Study II reveals gendered differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on a job application. Results indicate a reverse gender gap, as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced but remain strong and significant for male applicants.

Study III evaluates criticism directed at residual analysis and field experiments that claims that they tell us nothing about real world discrimination and its long-term effects. By combining experimental and register data, Study III responds to this criticism by showing that the results of Study I correspond closely with real world labor market inequality of identical ‘twins’ (identified through propensity score matching) to the fictive individuals of Study I.

Study IV explores the strategies underlying surname change from a Middle Eastern name to a more Swedish sounding one, drawing on 45 interviews with surname changers with a Middle Eastern background. The results indicate that immigrant name change is a pragmatic assimilation strategy. The study also illustrates how the institutional enabling of name change both creates and enables pragmatic assimilation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2012. 47 p.
Series
Stockholm studies in sociology, ISSN 0491-0885 ; N.S., 54
Keyword
ethnicity, ethnic discrimination, employment gaps, field experiment, correspondence test, gender, sex segregation, name change, stigma, pragmatic assimilation, mixed methods, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79041 (URN)978-91-87235-08-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-30, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved

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