Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
The structure of the fire fighting foam surfactant Forafac (R) 1157 and its biological and photolytic transformation products
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 89, no 7, 869-875 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For several decades, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has widely been used as a fluorinated surfactant in aqueous film forming foams used as hydrocarbon fuel fire extinguishers. Due to concerns regarding its environmental persistence and toxicological effects, PFOS has recently been replaced by novel fluorinated surfactants such as Forafac (R) 1157, developed by the DuPont company. The major component of Forafac (R) 1157 is a 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB), and a link between the trade name and the exact chemical structure is presented here to the scientific community for the first time. In the present work, the structure of the 6:2 FTAB was elucidated by H-1, C-13 and F-19 nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Moreover, its major metabolites from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and its photolytic transformation products were identified. Contrary to what has earlier been observed for PFOS, the 6:2 FTAB was extensively metabolized by blue mussel and turbot exposed to Forafac (R) 1157. The major metabolite was a deacetylated betaine species, from which mono- and di-demethylated metabolites also were formed. Another abundant metabolite was the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide. In another experiment, Forafac (R) 1157 was subjected to UV-light induced photolysis. The experimental conditions aimed to simulate Arctic conditions and the deacetylated species was again the primary transformation product of 6:2 FTAB. A 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide was also formed along with a non-identified transformation product. The environmental presence of most of the metabolites and transformation products was qualitatively demonstrated by analysis of soil samples taken in close proximity to an airport fire training facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 89, no 7, 869-875 p.
Keyword [en]
AFFF, Fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine, In vivo transformation, Photolytic transformation, F-19 NMR
National Category
Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82106DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.012ISI: 000308734200014OAI: diva2:566776


Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-08 Last updated: 2012-11-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Berger, Urs
By organisation
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)
In the same journal
Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 39 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link