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Primary Marine Aerosol Production: An experimental study based on Arctic Ocean water and a sea water proxy
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on the interplay between the physical properties of ocean water and primary marine aerosol (PMA) emissions in the context of a rapidly changing Arctic climate. PMAs are an important part of the climate system due to their ability to interact with incoming solar radiation and to influence cloud properties. The rapid changes taking place in the Arctic emphasize the need for an increased understanding of the feedback processes in the ocean-atmosphere-climate system. Less sea ice cover in a warmer climate results in a larger area for PMA emissions, but little is known about the impact of changes in water properties on PMA emissions.

This thesis examines the influence of water temperature (Tw), salinity, oxygen saturation, and organic content on PMA characteristics (particle number concentration, number size distribution, and light absorption) based on laboratory experiments with Arctic Ocean water and a sea water proxy.

Increasing Tw from about 0 °C up to about 7–10 °C results in a decrease by up to a factor of ten in particle number concentration. Concurrently, the particle light absorbing efficiency decreases by about 3 to 5 times. For a change in Tw above 7–10 °C, no impact on particle number concentration was detected. A shift towards larger sizes with an increase in Tw was observed for wintertime PMA size distributions, whilst a shift towards smaller sizes was observed for PMA size distributions based on Arctic Ocean water sampled during summertime. Changes in salinity and oxygen saturation did not show a significant impact on the examined aerosol properties. The temperature dependent trend in PMA emissions was confirmed by laboratory experiments with a simple sea water proxy using a NaCl solution with varying salinities and organic content (succinic acid). The results from this thesis deliver fundamental knowledge for a better assessment of ocean-aerosol-cloud interaction feedbacks in a future warmer Arctic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University , 2012. , 62 p.
Keyword [en]
Arctic Ocean, primary marine aerosol, climate change, sea water physical properties
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82574ISBN: 978-91-7447-589-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-82574DiVA: diva2:570469
Public defence
2013-01-18, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Submitted.

Available from: 2012-12-27 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2012-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wintertime Arctic Ocean sea water properties and primary marine aerosol concentrations
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2012 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 21, 10405-10421 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sea spray aerosols are an important part of the climate system through their direct and indirect effects. Due to the diminishing sea ice, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most rapidly changing sea spray aerosol source areas. However, the influence of these changes on primary particle production is not known.

In laboratory experiments we examined the influence of Arctic Ocean water temperature, salinity, and oxygen saturation on primary particle concentration characteristics. Sea water temperature was identified as the most important of these parameters. A strong decrease in sea spray aerosol production with increasing water temperature was observed for water temperatures between −1°C and 9°C. Aerosol number concentrations decreased from at least 1400 cm−3 to 350 cm−3. In general, the aerosol number size distribution exhibited a robust shape with one mode close to dry diameter Dp 0.2 μm with approximately 45% of particles at smaller sizes. Changes in sea water temperature did not result in pronounced change of the shape of the aerosol size distribution, only in the magnitude of the concentrations. Our experiments indicate that changes in aerosol emissions are most likely linked to changes of the physical properties of sea water at low temperatures. The observed strong dependence of sea spray aerosol concentrations on sea water temperature, with a large fraction of the emitted particles in the typical cloud condensation nuclei size range, provide strong arguments for a more careful consideration of this effect in climate models

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82563 (URN)10.5194/acp-12-10405-2012 (DOI)000310954400025 ()
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison between summertime and wintertime Arctic Ocean primary marine aerosol properties
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(English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, ISSN 1680-7367, E-ISSN 1680-7375Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82567 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Arctic Ocean water:  A source of light absorbing particles to the atmosphere
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82571 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2012-11-19Bibliographically approved
4. Artificial primary marine aerosol production: a laboratory study with varying water temperature, salinity, and succinic acid concentration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial primary marine aerosol production: a laboratory study with varying water temperature, salinity, and succinic acid concentration
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2012 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 22, 10709-10724 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Primary marine aerosols are an important component of the climate system, especially in the remote marine environment. With diminishing sea-ice cover, better understanding of the role of sea spray aerosol on climate in the polar regions is required. As for Arctic Ocean water, laboratory experiments with NaCl water confirm that a few degrees change in the water temperature (Tw) gives a large change in the number of primary particles. Small particles with a dry diameter between 0.01 μm and 0.25 μm dominate the aerosol number density, but their relative dominance decreases with increasing water temperature from 0 °C where they represent 85–90% of the total aerosol number to 10 °C, where they represent 60–70% of the total aerosol number. This effect is most likely related to a change in physical properties and not to modification of sea water chemistry. A change of salinity between 15 g kg−1 and 35 g kg−1 did not influence the shape of a particle number size distribution. Although the magnitude of the size distribution for a water temperature change between 0 °C and 16 °C changed, the shape did not. An experiment where succinic acid was added to a NaCl water solution showed, that the number concentration of particles with 0.010 μm < Dp < 4.5 μm decreased on average by 10% when the succinic acid concentration in NaCl water at a water temperature of 0 °C was increased from 0 μmol L−1 to 94 μmol L−1. A shift to larger sizes in the particle number size distribution is observed from pure NaCl water to Arctic Ocean water. This is likely a consequence of organics and different inorganic salts present in Arctic Ocean water in addition to the NaCl.

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82566 (URN)10.5194/acp-12-10709-2012 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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