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Exchange and pathways of deep and shallow groundwater in different climate and permafrost conditions using the Forsmark site, Sweden, as an example catchment
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
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2012 (English)In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 21, no 1, 225-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study simulates and quantifies the exchange and the pathways of deep and shallow groundwaterflow and solute transport under different climate and permafrost conditions, considering the example field case of the coastal Forsmark catchment in Sweden. A number of simulation scenarios for different climate and permafrost condition combinations have been performed with the three-dimensional groundwater flow and transport model MIKE SHE. Results show generally decreasing vertical groundwater flow with depth, and smaller vertical flow under permafrost conditions than under unfrozen conditions. Also the overall pattern of both the vertical and the horizontal groundwater flow, and the water exchange between the deep and shallow groundwater systems, change dramatically in the presence of permafrost relative to unfrozen conditions. However, although the vertical groundwater flow decreases significantly in the presence of permafrost, there is still an exchange of water between the unfrozen groundwater system below the permafrost and the shallow groundwater in the active layer, via taliks. ‘Through taliks’ tend to prevail in areas that constitute groundwater discharge zones under unfrozen conditions, which then mostly shift to net recharge zones (through taliks with net downward flow) under permafrost conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 21, no 1, 225-237 p.
Keyword [en]
Groundwater flow, Numerical modelling, Permafrost hydrology, Climate change
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82882DOI: 10.1007/s10040-012-0906-7ISI: 000314333600017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-82882DiVA: diva2:572865
Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The influence of climate and permafrost on catchment hydrology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of climate and permafrost on catchment hydrology
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The cycling of water in the landscape is influenced by climate change on different time scales and in different directions regarding warming or cooling trends. Along with a changing climate, also the landscape and subsurface conditions, such as permafrost extent, may change in a long-term perspective. Permafrost and hydrology are intimately connected but the interactions between them are poorly understood, and the hydrological response to climate change is complex. The first part of this thesis investigates the effects of different drivers of future changes in hydrological flow and water storage components in the present day temperate Forsmark catchment in Sweden. The role of taliks and their influence on the exchange of deep and shallow groundwater in permafrost environments are also studied. This is done by a simulation sequence where the site is exposed to the landscape, climate and permafrost changes expected from site-specific numerical modeling. In the second part of this thesis, present day periglacial hydrological processes are studied in the Two Boat Lake catchment in western Greenland by field and model investigations of the site. The presence of a through talik below the Two Boat Lake, and data from a deep bedrock borehole into the talik, enable studies of the hydrological interactions between the lake and the talik. The spatial and temporal variability of the different water balance components of the catchment are quantified and the interactions between the surface water and the supra- and sub-permafrost groundwater are analyzed.

The results show that the investigated changes in climate and permafrost influence hydrology more than the investigated landscape changes. Under permafrost conditions, the general direction of the exchange between deep and shallow groundwater may change relative to unfrozen conditions. The simulation studies of Forsmark show that the relative topography between taliks governs the recharging and discharging conditions, which is consistent with results from Two Boat Lake. The lake is located at high altitude relative to other taliks and hydraulic measurements indicate recharging conditions. The talik recharge is small compared to other water balance components and does not influence the lake level, which instead is found to be controlled by evapotranspiration and water inflow from the active layer. This is concluded from numerical simulations that take into account and combine evapotranspiration with other surface and subsurface hydrological processes. This thesis highlights the need to integrate surface and subsurface process modelling in order to quantitatively understand and represent the dynamics and complexity of hydrological interactions in periglacial catchments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 2016. 44 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 56
Keyword
Hydrology, Periglacial, Greenland, Forsmark, Talik, Permafrost Hydrology
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-124058 (URN)978-91-7649-390-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-03, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Available from: 2016-05-11 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2017-02-20Bibliographically approved

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