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Determination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic, sulfonic, and phosphonic acids in food
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2012 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 404, no 8, 2193-2201 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sensitive and accurate method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and phosphonic acids (PFPAs) at low picograms per gram concentrations in a variety of food matrices. The method employed extraction with acetonitrile/water and cleanup on a mixed-mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8 + quaternary amine) using solid-phase extraction. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase gradient containing 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine for optimal chromatographic resolution of PFPAs. A quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer operating in negative ion mode was used as detector. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.02 ng g(-1) for all analytes. Sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) recoveries at a spiking level of 0.1 ng g(-1) to a baby food composite were in the range of 59 to 98 %. A strong matrix effect was observed in the analysis of PFPAs in food extracts, which was tentatively assigned to sorption of PFPAs to the injection vial in the solvent-based calibration standard. The method was successfully applied to a range of different food matrices including duplicate diet samples, vegetables, meat, and fish samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 404, no 8, 2193-2201 p.
Keyword [en]
PFCAs, PFSAs, PFPAs, Food samples, HPLC, HRMS
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-83037DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6374-zISI: 000310083900012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-83037DiVA: diva2:574285
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improved analytical methods for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors – a focus on human dietary exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved analytical methods for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors – a focus on human dietary exposure
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances are a large group of global environmental contaminants. They can be divided into two sub-groups, 1) perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and 2) so called precursors, i.e. compounds that can potentially be transformed to form PFAAs. PFAAs are today ubiquitous in wildlife and humans. Food and drinking water are assumed to be the dominant human exposure pathways for PFAAs.

The main aim of this doctoral thesis was to develop highly sensitive and fully validated analytical methods for the determination of a range of PFAAs and selected precursors in dietary samples. The methods were based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted by solvent extraction followed by a cleanup step employing solid phase extraction. The cleanup step could at the same time be used as a fractionation of ionic PFAAs and neutral precursors.

Paper I and II describe the development of methods for simultaneous analysis of three groups of PFAAs including perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) in drinking water and food. Methyl piperidine was used as ion pairing agent, leading to highly sensitive analysis of PFPAs. A first screening of tap water samples and different food items revealed that human dietary exposure to PFPAs in Europe is currently not of concern.

A novel method for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in food and packaging materials is described in paper III. Targeted food samples and their packaging were analyzed. The results showed that PAPs may contribute to human exposure to PFCAs. In paper IV temporal trends (1991-2011) of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and its precursors in herring were investigated. Rapidly decreasing trends were found for precursors, whereas PFOS did not show a significant change over time. Precursors in fish may have played an important role for human exposure to PFOS in the 1990s but are probably negligible today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2013. 47 p.
Keyword
Environmental Science, PFASs, PFAAs, PFOA, PFOS, Precursor, FOSA, PAPs, Method development, LC-MS, SPE, Dietary sample, Drinking water, Human exposure
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93719 (URN)978-91-7447-753-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-25, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PERFOOD project (KBBE-227525)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, KBBE-227525
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2014-01-31Bibliographically approved

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