Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, 57-82 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 49, 57-82 p.
Keyword [en]
Brominated flame retardants, Chlorinated flame retardants, Phosphorus flame retardants, Nomenclature, Abbreviations, Physico-chemical properties
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84787DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.003ISI: 000311600500008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-84787DiVA: diva2:581946
Note

AuthorCount:12;

Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis of organobromines as a tool for their characterisation and environmental occurrence assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of organobromines as a tool for their characterisation and environmental occurrence assessment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been intensively used as flame retardants (FRs) and have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants. PBDEs form hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) as metabolites. Further, some OH-PBDEs and methoxy-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products. These are all compounds of environmental and health concern and it is therefore important to confirm their identity and to assess their environmental levels and toxicities. Hence, it is vital to obtain authentic reference standards of individual PBDEs and OH/MeO-PBDEs. The thesis main aim was to develop synthesis methods of congener specific PBDEs, OH- and MeO-PBDEs. The second aim was to identify and quantify PBDEs, OH- and MeO-PBDEs in environmental samples. The third was to propose an abbreviation system for FRs.

O-Arylation of brominated phenols, using either symmetrical or unsymmetrical brominated diphenyliodonium salts, was selected for synthesis of PBDEs and OH-/MeO-PBDEs. A total of 16 MeO-PBDEs, 11 OH-PBDEs, 1 diMeO-PBDE and 1 EtO-MeO-PBDE were synthesised. Three novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium triflates were synthesised and used in synthesis. Optimisations were made to construct a reliable general method for congener specific PBDE synthesis, which was used in the synthesis of 8 representative PBDE congeners. The products were generally characterised by electron ionisation mass spectrometry (EIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

Identification of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs in various matrixes was based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. Fourteen OH-PBDE congeners were identified in a pooled human blood sample. One previously uncharacterised natural PBDE analogue was identified as 6-OH-6’-MeO-BDE-194, and quantified in Swedish blue mussels. PBDE congeners and other BFRs were identified and quantified in workers and dust from a smelter in Sweden.

A structured and practical abbreviation system was developed for halogen- and phosphorus containing FRs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2013. 85 p.
Keyword
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Brominated diphenyliodoniums salts, PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, Synthesis, Analysis, Abbreviations, Metabolites, Marine natural products, E-waste, Brominated flameretardants
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95649 (URN)978-91-7447-800-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-12, Stora hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Formas, 2009-1297Formas, 2009-1309Formas, 2009-1303
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2013-11-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergman, ÅkeRydén, Andreas
By organisation
Environmental Chemistry
In the same journal
Environment International
Chemical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 287 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf