Large-Scale Field Study on Thin-Layer Capping of Marine PCDD/F-Contaminated Sediments in Grenlandfjords, Norway: Physicochemical Effects
2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 21, 12030-12037 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A large-scale field experiment on in situ thin-layer capping was carried out in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandsfjords, Norway The main focus of the,trial Was to,test the effectiveness of active caps (targeted thickness of 2.5 cm) consisting of powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed into locally dredged clean clay. Nonactive caps (targed thickness of 5 cm) consisting of clay without, AC as well as crushed limestone were also tested Fields with areas of 10 000 to 40 000 m(2) were established at 30 to 100 m water depth. Auxiliary shaken laboratory batch experiments showed that 2% of the applied powdered AC substantially reduced PCDD/F porewater concentrations, by >90% for tetra-, penta- and hexa-clorinated congeners to 60-70% for octachlorinated ones. In situ AC profiles revealed that the AC was mixed into the sediment to 3 to 5 cm depth in 20 months. Only around 25% of the AC was found inside the pilot fields. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes measured by in situ diffusion chambers were significantly lower at the capped fields than at reference fields in the same fjord, reductions being largest for the limestone (50-90%) followed by clay (50-70%), and the AC + clay (60%). Also reductions in overlying aqueous PCDD/F concentrations measured by passive samplers were significant in most cases (20-40% reduction), probably because of the large size of the trial fields. The AC was less effective in the field than in the laboratory, probably due to prolonged sediment-to-AC mass transfer times for PCDD/Fs and field factors such as integrity of the cap, new deposition Of contaminated sediment particles, and bioturbation. The present field data indicate that slightly thicker layers of limestone and dredged clay can show as good physicochemical effectiveness as thin caps of AC mixed with clay, at least for PCDD/Fs during the first two years after cap placement.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 46, no 21, 12030-12037 p.
Environmental Sciences Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84781DOI: 10.1021/es302431uISI: 000310665000066OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-84781DiVA: diva2:581967