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Assembly of Subtype 1 Influenza Neuraminidase Is Driven by Both the Transmembrane and Head Domains
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, no 1, 644-653 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the two major influenza surface antigens and the main influenza drug target. Although NA has been well characterized and thought to function as a tetramer, the role of the transmembrane domain (TMD) in promoting proper NA assembly has not been systematically studied. Here, we demonstrate that in the absence of the TMD, NA is synthesized and transported in a predominantly inactive state. Substantial activity was rescued by progressive truncations of the stalk domain, suggesting the TMD contributes to NA maturation by tethering the stalk to the membrane. To analyze how the TMD supports NA assembly, the TMD was examined by itself. The NA TMD formed a homotetramer and efficiently trafficked to the plasma membrane, indicating the TMD and enzymatic head domain drive assembly together through matching oligomeric states. In support of this, an unrelated strong oligomeric TMD rescued almost full NA activity, whereas the weak oligomeric mutant of this TMD restored only half of wild type activity. These data illustrate that a large soluble domain can force assembly with a poorly compatible TMD; however, optimal assembly requires coordinated oligomerization between the TMD and the soluble domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 288, no 1, 644-653 p.
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87689DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.424150ISI: 000313197200065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-87689DiVA: diva2:605866
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2013-02-15 Created: 2013-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Influenza neuraminidase assembly: Evolution of domain cooperativity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influenza neuraminidase assembly: Evolution of domain cooperativity
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most common viruses circulating in the human population and is responsible for seasonal epidemics that affect millions of individuals worldwide. The need to develop new drugs and vaccines against IAVs led scientists to study the main IAV surface antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In contrast to HA, which facilitates cell binding and entry of IAVs, NA plays a critical role in the release and spreading of the viral particles.

The aim of this thesis was to study how the enzymatic head domain, the stalk and transmembrane domains have evolved to facilitate NA assembly into an enzymatically active homotetramer, and to determine how these regions have evolved together over time. Initially, we observed that the NA transmembrane domain (TMD) assists in the assembly of the head domain by tethering the stalk to the membrane in a tetrameric conformation. Upon examination of the available sequences for NA, we found that the subtype 1 (N1) TMDs have become more polar since 1918 while the subtype 2 (N2) TMDs have consistently retained the expected hydrophobicity of a TMD. Further analysis of the amino-acid sequences revealed a characteristic indicative of an amphipathic assembly for the N1 TMDs that were absent in the TMDs from N2. The function of the amphipathic assembly was examined by creating two viral chimeras, where the original TMD was replaced by another more polar or an engineered hydrophobic TMD. In both cases the viruses carrying the NA TMD chimeras showed reduced growth indicating that the TMD changes created an incompatibility with the head domain of NA. After prolonged passaging of these viruses, natural occurring mutations were observed in the TMD that were able to rescue the defects in viral growth, head domain folding and budding by creating a TMD with the appropriate polar or hydrophobic assembly properties. Interestingly, we observed that N1 and N2 have a great difference in the localization and length of amino-acid deletions occurring in the stalk region. In line with this observation, our data suggests that N1 supports large stalk deletions due to its strong TMD association, whereas N2 requires the presence of a strong oligomerizing stalk region to compensate for its weak TMD interaction. These results have demonstrated how important the NA TMD is for viral infectivity and how the three different domains have evolved in a cooperative manner to promote proper NA assembly

Abstract [sv]

Influensa är en av de mest smittsamma sjukdomarna som drabbar människor och de flesta kan räkna med att bli infekterade många gånger under sin livstid. Influensaviruset attackerar främst luftvägarna, men kan även leda till t.ex. lunginflammation. De enskilda viruspartiklarna (virionerna) kan komma i olika former, men den vanligaste formen som används för att beskriva viruset är den sfäriska. På en virions yta så finns det två olika typer av membranproteiner, som kan liknas med två olika sorters spikar som sticker ut från viruset. Den ena ”spiken” kallas neuraminidas, eller bara kort för NA, och den andra för hemagglutinin (HA). När man har andats in ett influensavirus så kan viruset ta sig till de övre luftvägarna och vidare ner i luftstrupen för att där använda sig av HA för att ta sig in i en cell. Viruset använder sig sedan av cellen för att skapa många nya virioner, som tar sig ut ur cellen för att infektera fler celler. NA är det protein som virionerna använder sig av för att klyva sig loss från modercellen.

Målet för avhandlingen var att studera NA och beskriva hur proteinet måste vara ihopsatt för att vara aktivt. NA har en uppbyggnad liknande en trädklunga, där fyra stycken identiska träd (med tillhörande rötter, stammar och trädkronor) går ihop och bildar en enda aktiv enhet, en s.k. tetramer. ”Rötterna” hos NA är den transmembrana domänen (TMD), den del av proteinet som sitter fast i influenaviruskroppen. ”Stammen”, eller stjälkdelen av NA, binder samman TMD med den största delen, huvuddomänen som motsvarar ”trädkronan”. Det är just huvuddomänen som är ansvarig för att klyva loss viruspartiklar från en modercell.

Vi har i våra studier sett att det kan vara väldigt viktigt att TMD-domänerna går ihop i grupper om fyra för att hela NA ska kunna gå ihop i en tetramer och aktivt kunna klyva loss viruspartiklarna. När vi studerade TMD från olika influensavirus så märkte vi att vissa egenskaper hos TMD krävs för att de skulle kunna gå ihop, men också att dessa egenskaper inte fanns hos alla influensavirus. Virusen har evolverat över lång tid och har anpassat sig efter värdorganismerna (inklusive människan) och har hittat olika lösningar på problemet med att behöva bilda en tetramer. När vi gjorde ändringar i en TMD som vanligtvis gick ihop till en tetramer, och därmed förhindrade detta, så noterade vi att huvuddomänens funktion påverkades vilket ledde till att influensaviruset hade svårt att spridas. Vidare så har våra pågående studier på stjälkdelen visat att även denna del kan ha stor betydelse för tetrameriseringen av NA, speciellt i de fall där TM-domänen saknar egenskaper för att gå ihop.

Avhandlingen tillför inte bara ny och viktig information till influensaforskningen, utan även potentiellt för framställandet av nya influensavacciner/-mediciner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 2016. 64 p.
Keyword
Influenza, neuraminidase, assembly, transmembrane domain, evolution
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134470 (URN)978-91-7649-553-7 (ISBN)978-91-7649-554-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-25, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-25Bibliographically approved
2. NA transmembrane domain: Amphiphilic drift to accommodate two functions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NA transmembrane domain: Amphiphilic drift to accommodate two functions
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Neuraminidase (NA) is one of two major antigens on the surface of influenza A viruses. It is comprised of a single N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD), a stalk domain, and a C-terminal enzymatic head domain that cleaves sialic acid, most notably to release new particles from the host cell surface. NA is only enzymatically active as a homo-tetramer. However, it is not known which properties facilitate the oligomerization of NA during assembly. Our results show that, apart from anchoring the protein to the membrane, the NA TMD also contributes to the assembly process by keeping the stalk in a tetrameric conformation. The ability of the TMD to oligomerize is shown to be dependent on its amphiphilic characteristics that was largely conserved across the nine NA subtypes (N1-N9). Over time the NA TMDs in human H1N1 viruses were found to have become more amphiphilic, which correlated with stronger oligomerization. An old H1N1 virus with a more recent N1 TMD had impaired growth, but readily acquired compensatory mutations in the TMD to restore growth, by reverting the TMD oligomerization strength back to that of the old TMD, demonstrating a biological role of the TMD in folding and assembly. NA and the other viral proteins are spatially and temporally coordinated to achieve optimal viral production. By using a co-transfection analysis, the high AU-content in the NA and HA ER-targeting sequence coding regions (for NA TMD as well as the HA signal sequence) were found to inhibit their expression. The inhibition was alleviated by the early expressed influenza RNA-binding protein NS1, which promoted translation and showed enriched foci at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). NS1, which expresses early during infection, is therefore likely the regulator of NA and HA to prevent premature expression. These results show that the NA TMD is under substantial selection pressure at both the nucleotide and amino acid level to accommodate its roles in ER-targeting, protein folding, and post-transcriptional regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 2017
Keyword
influenza, IAV, neuraminidase, NA, transmembrane domain, TMD, secretory protein, ER-targeting sequence, ER-targeting sequence coding region, protein regulation, NS1, GALLEX
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142051 (URN)978-91-7649-825-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-826-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-05, Magnelisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Accepted.

Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-04-24 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved

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