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Arsenic accumulation in plants for food and phytoremediation: Influence by external factors
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. (Greger group)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arsenic (As) appears in the environment as various As species, which may vary in plant uptake and toxicity. Moreover, As exposure may vary between habitat due to availability and speciation, both of which are influenced by redox potential. To decrease As uptake, addition of silicate may be a tool.

The aim of the study was to investigate how the external factors As availability, plant habitats, silicon and oxygen level, influenced the accumulation and speciation of As in plants for food and phytoremediation in a temperate region. The external factors were chosen due to their previously showed influence on As in plants.

The risks with dietary As was investigated by plant As accumulation and speciation in carrot, lettuce and spinach grown in alum shale and glassworks soils, and by the influence of silicon on As accumulation in lettuce in hydroponics. Suitable plants for As phytoremediation was investigated by analysing plants from various habitats, and by the O2 influence on phytofiltration.

The results showed that vegetables accumulated more As in soils with higher As extractability, and the As extractability in the rhizosphere was higher than in bulk soil. Also, the As concentration in lettuce was higher in hydroponics than in soil, but silicon reduced the accumulation of As in lettuce in hydroponics. Also, the more toxic inorganic As were the main As species detected in vegetables, compared with the less toxic organic As. For phytoremediation, the results showed a low As accumulation in emergent and terrestrial plants. Submerged plants had had a higher shoot As concentration. In general, the habitat had a major influence on the As accumulation in plants. The results also showed that the As accumulation properties in Elodea canadensis was reduced at higher O2.

In conclusion, consumption of vegetables cultivated in As polluted soils can result in an elevated intake of inorganic As, and E. canadensis is a promising candidate for As phytofiltration in a temperate region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2013. , 52 p.
Keyword [en]
Arsenic, accumulation, availability, distribution, habitat, phy-toremediation, rhizosphere, redox potential, speciation
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87798ISBN: 978-91-7447-653-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-87798DiVA: diva2:606387
Public defence
2013-04-02, föreläsningssalen, Lilla Frescati, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript; Paper 4: Manuscript; Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-03-11 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats
2012 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 27, no 3, 615-622 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation in 124 plant species collected from different habitats and speciation in 6 of these plant species, was determined. The data show that submerged plants have a higher accumulation than emergent and terrestrial plants. The As concentration in terrestrial and emergent plants were correlated with the [As](soil), while the accumulation factor correlated negatively with [As](soil). Gymnosperms had a high [As](shoot):[As](root) ratio. The inorganic As species, arsenate and arsenite were found in plants from all habitats and methylarsonic acid (MMA) in all but one plant species. Arsenate predominated in submerged plants. The results suggest that the habitat and the [As](soil) have a strong influence on the As accumulation in plants and that submerged plants and/or gymnosperms might be suitable for phytoremediation of As.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-76961 (URN)10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.12.009 (DOI)000300403400008 ()
Note

2

Available from: 2012-06-15 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Oxygen influences on arsenic behaviour in sediment-water-plant system of Elodea canadensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen influences on arsenic behaviour in sediment-water-plant system of Elodea canadensis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phytofiltration can be used to remove arsenic (As) from water using the submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis. To understand the effects of aeration on this system, we investigated the influence of different O2 levels on the As concentration and speciation in sediment, water and E. canadensis,and the efficiency of phytofiltration of As by this plant. The water in pots with As, E. canadensis and/or sediment were aerated with N2, air or left unmodified to create low, high and medium O2 levels, respectively. Analyses of As concentration and species were performed with HPLC-AAS. The results showed that the As accumulation properties by E. canadensis decreased at high O2. Medium O2 had the lowest As release from sediment to water and among the highest plant As accumulation. Arsenate predominated in the sediment-water-plant system, but arsenite increased with decreasing O2. To create conditions favouring the binding of As in sediment and accumulation from water by E. canadensis, the O2 concentration should be medium.

Keyword
Accumulation, arsenic, O2, phytofiltration, speciation
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87788 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-19 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2013-02-19
3. Phytostabilization of arsenic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytostabilization of arsenic
2015 (English)In: In-Situ Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Sites / [ed] Jochen Bundschuh, Hartmut M. Holländer, Lena Qiying Ma, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, Vol. 6, 53-67 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015
Series
Arsenic in the Environment, ISSN 1876-6218 ; 6
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123203 (URN)10.1201/b17619-4 (DOI)000363062900004 ()978-0-203-12017-0 (ISBN)978-0-415-62085-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
4. Accumulation and speciation of arsenic in vegetables cultivated in soils with various As availability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation and speciation of arsenic in vegetables cultivated in soils with various As availability
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The toxicity of arsenic (As) in the environment is controlled by its concentration, availability and speciation. The aims of the study were to evaluate the accumulation and speciation of As in three vegetables (carrot, lettuce, spinach) cultivated in both contaminated and natural soils with various As concentrations and to estimate the concomitant health risks associated with the consumption of the vegetables. Arsenic concentration and speciation in plant tissues and soils was analysed by HPLC, AAS and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. To estimate the plants influence in the rhizosphere, organic acids in lettuce root exudates were analysed by ion chromatography. The results showed that the As accumulation was higher in plants cultivated in soil with higher As extractability. Arsenate predominated in the soils, rhizosphere and root exudates of lettuce. Succinic acid was the major organic acid in lettuce root exudates. Arsenite was the predominating As species in the shoots of healthy looking plants. In plants showing signs of phytotoxicity, arsenate was predominating. Ingestion of the tested vegetables may result in an intake of elevated levels of As.

Keyword
Arsenic, accumulation, speciation, availability, rhizosphere
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87789 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-19 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2013-02-19
5. Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lettuce grown in soil is found to contain high concentration of the toxic element arsenic (As). The aim was therefore to investigate uptake and speciation of As in lettuce as well as the influence of silicon (Si) on As uptake, since Si may diminish the As uptake. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solution containing arsenite or arsenate with or without silicate. Uptake and distribution of As between roots and shoots, As accumulation in cell walls, As speciation and toxic effect on biomass were analysed. Results show that arsenite was more toxic to lettuce than arsenate. Silicate decreased the toxicity to arsenate but very little of the arsenite toxicity was changed by Si. On the other hand, Si diminished the arsenite uptake more than the arsenate uptake. There was higher concentration of arsenate than of arsenite in the plant independent which As species added. When arsenate was added, the As concentration in shoot was half of that in the root and this distribution did not change with Si addition. When arsenite was added, about 10% of As was found in the shoots and 90% in the roots, but changed in the presence of Si to be evenly distributed in the plant. In both roots and shoot, about 40% of the As was found in the cell wall fraction, and only in the shoot when arsenite was added, Si increased this fraction to 47%. The extraction efficiency when analysing the As-species was lower in shoot than in roots, especially in the presence of arsenite and Si. The opposite was found for the As concentration in pellets after extraction. This pointed towards variations in the strength of binding of arsenite and arsenate between roots and shoots and between Si and non-Si treated plants.

Keyword
Arsenic, accumulation, silicon, speciation, toxicity
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87793 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-19 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2013-02-19

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