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Herbivores, pollinators and selection on flowering time in tetraploid and octoploid Cardamine pratensis
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Repeated polyploidization events are thought to be among the most important causes of sympatric speciation throughout evolutionary time. Changes in phenology and trait expressions that arise in polyploids have been shown to affect plant interactions with insect herbivores and pollinators. If these interactions are changed, selection subsequent to the polyploidization event could contribute to further divergence, or increased similarity, of cytotypes. This study was conducted to investigate plant interactions with insect herbivores and pollinators and patterns of selection in tetraploid and octoploid Cardamine pratensis L. (Brassicaceae), and to answer the following questions: i) Is there phenotypic selection on flowering phenology and number of flowers? ii) Is pollen limitation or herbivory most important for variation in reproductive output? iii) During what stages of ovary and ovule development do variation in fitness mainly arise? iv) Can the intensity of interactions be linked to phenology and number of flowers, suggesting that selection is mediated by pollen limitation or herbivory? v) Do intensity of interactions, and of interaction-mediated selection, differ between ploidy levels?

From a combination of an observational study of herbivory and a hand pollination experiment, selection was found for earlier flowering in both subspecies. Intensity of herbivory was an important determinant of plant reproductive success, while hand pollination had little effect. Positive effects of flowering time on intensity of herbivory suggest that selection for earlier flowering was mediated by herbivores.

Tetraploids initiated flowering later and suffered from more intense herbivory than did octoploids. The direction of selection was similar in both subspecies. However, differences strength of selection and intensity of herbivory suggest that there is a possibility of selection for their further divergence.

Abstract [sv]

Polyploidisering anses vara en av de viktigaste orsakerna till artbildning inom populationer. Skillnader i blomningskaraktärer, såsom fenologi och blomantal, som uppstår i och med polyploidiseringen har visat sig påverka växters interaktioner med såväl pollinatörer som herbivorer. Förändringar i växt-insektsinteraktioner till följd av polyploidiseringen kan leda till selektion för ökade skillnader, eller likheter, mellan cytotyper. Studiens syfte var att undersöka växters interaktioner med insekter i form av pollinatörer och herbivorer, samt att undersöka selektionsmönster hos tetraploida och oktoploida Cardamine pratensis L. (Brassicaceae). Jag ville även besvara följande frågor: i) Sker selektion på blomningstid och blomantal? ii) Vilken växt-insektsinteraktion är viktigast för variation i reproduktionsframgång? iii) Under vilka utvecklingsstadier uppstår den största variationen i fitness? iv) Kan intensiteten av interaktionerna kopplas till blomningsfenologi och blomantal, vilket skulle indikera att selektion förmedlas genom pollenbegränsning eller herbivori? v) Skiljer sig styrkan av interaktionerna, och av interaktionsförmedlad selektion, mellan ploidinivåer?

Studien utformades som en kombination av en observationsstudie av herbivori och ett handpollineringsexperiment, och jag fann selektion för tidigare blomning hos de två underarterna. Reproduktionsframgång styrdes av herbivori snarare än pollenbegränsing. Förlust av potentiell fitness genom att fröämnen inte utvecklades till frön var den faktor som starkast påverkade variation i fitness, och detta var också den fas i utvecklingen som bidrog i störst utsträckning till kvantitativ förlust av fitness. Ett positivt samband mellan blomningsfenologi och herbivoriintensitet indikerar att selektion för blomningstid var förmedlad av herbivorer.

Tetraploider blommade senare och utsattes för mer intensiva herbivorattacker än oktoploider. Detta, samt skillnader i selektionsstyrka, indikerar att selektion skulle kunna leda till ökad divergens av underarterna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 30 p.
Series
Plants & Ecology, ISSN 1651-9248 ; 3
Keyword [en]
Cardamine, herbivory, herbivore mediated selection, pollination, pollen limitation, polyploidy, selection, flowering phenology
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-88100OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-88100DiVA: diva2:609538
Presentation
2013-02-01, 540, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Uppsok
Life Earth Science
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2013-03-06 Created: 2013-03-06 Last updated: 2013-03-06Bibliographically approved

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