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Phylogeny of the parasitic wasp subfamily Euphorinae (Braconidae) and evolution of its host preferences
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
University of Kentucky, Department of Entomology.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The braconid subfamily Euphorinae is a large, cosmopolitan group of endoparasitoid wasps. The majority of species attack adult hosts, a strategy that is rare among parasitic wasps, but there are also many species that attack nymphs and larval stages. Euphorine hosts may belong to a variety of insect orders (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Psocoptera, Orthoptera and Lepidoptera) although most euphorine tribes are confined to Coleoptera. Here we investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the Euphorinae based on molecular data (3 kb of nucleotide data from four markers: 18S, 28S, CAD and COI) and revise their higher-level classification. We also infer the evolution of host associations, and discuss the diversification of the Euphorinae. Results from both Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood analysis show that the subfamily, as previously circumscribed, is paraphyletic. We propose that the subfamily be expanded to include the tribes Meteorini and Planitorini (Mannokeraia+Planitorius), so that it corresponds to a clade that is strongly supported as monophyletic in our analyses. Based on our results, a revised higher classification of the Euphorinae is proposed, in which 55 extant genera and 14 tribes are recognized. We reinstate the genus Microctonus belonging to the tribe Perilitini and propose the following tribal rearrangements: Spathicopis and Stenothremma are transferred to Perilitini; Tuberidelus, Sinuatophorus and Plynops to Cosmophorini; Ecclitura and Napo to Dinocampini; Chrysopophthorus and Wesmaelia to Helorimorphini; and Proclithoporus to Townesilitini. The monotypic tribes Cryptoxilonini and Myiocephalini are synonymized with Cosmophorini and Syntretini, respectively. The genus Pygostolus, previously placed among the Centistini, is established as its own tribe Pygostolini. Parsimony-based ancestral state reconstructions suggest that the ancestor of Euphorinae was a parasitoid of coleopteran larvae, and that a host shift to larval Lepidoptera occurred early in the evolution of the Meteorini. In the remainder of the subfamily, there was an initial shift from larval to adult coleopterans, followed by subsequent shifts to adults or larvae of Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Psocoptera.

National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89109OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-89109DiVA: diva2:615670
Available from: 2013-04-11 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hidden Creatures – systematics of the Euphorinae (Hymenoptera)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hidden Creatures – systematics of the Euphorinae (Hymenoptera)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Parasitic wasps constitute one of the last remaining frontiers in the charting of animal diversity. The Braconidae is the second most species-rich family of parasitic wasps; the world fauna has been estimated at 40 000 species and the Swedish fauna is believed to include a little more than 2 000 species, 1 200 of which are currently documented. This thesis is a contribution to the rapidly increasing knowledge of braconid diversity. In paper I, a new gregarious parasitoid, Meteorus acerbiavorus sp. nov. (Braconidae: Eupohrinae), is described from specimens reared from the cocoons of the butterfly Acerbia alpina (Quensel) (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) in northwestern Finnish Lapland. Based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis, the new species is shown to belong to the M. rubens species group. In the second paper, the Western Palearctic fauna of the tribe is revised, seven new species are described and a key to the Western Palearctic species is presented. Two molecular markers, 28S and COI, are used to study phylogenetic relationships in the tribe. The molecular results showed that the Meteorini fall into four well supported clades. The results also reveal a considerable cryptic species diversity. The third paper deals with distributional, phenological and in many cases rearing data from nearly 2 500 specimens (44 species) of the Meteorini in the collection of the National Museums of Scotland (NMS), Edinburgh. Patterns in the breadth of host ranges are discussed in relation to a reiterated speciation hypothesis. Paper IV examines the phylogenetic relationships of the entire subfamily Euphorinae based upon four gene regions (18S, CAD, 28S D2, and COI). A revised classification of the Euphorinae is proposed that recognizes 55 genera and 14 tribes. Our study shows that early members of the Euphorinae were parasitoids of coleopteran larvae, with a host shift to larval Lepidoptera, adult or immature hosts in the Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Psocoptera.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2013. 40 p.
Keyword
Parasitic wasps, Braconidae, Euphorinae, systematics, phylogeny, molecular taxonomy, cryptic species, evolution, host preferences, identification keys
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-87904 (URN)978-91-7447-605-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-17, Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-04-25 Created: 2013-02-24 Last updated: 2013-04-15Bibliographically approved

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