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Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Umeå University. (Department of Chemistry)
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89369OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-89369DiVA: diva2:617436
Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2013-04-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental fate of chemicals released from consumer products: Multimedia modelling strategies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental fate of chemicals released from consumer products: Multimedia modelling strategies
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this thesis was to assess the environmental fate and transport of chemicals emitted from consumer products through the development and application of modelling tools. The following hypotheses were tested: i) Multimedia fate models can be applied in a multistage assessment process to emerging chemicals when limited knowledge exists to identify the likely environmental fate and to direct further research; ii) the indoor environment acts as a source of anthropogenic substances in consumer products to the outdoor environment; and iii) chemical removal pathways in the indoor environment are important for the fate of organic chemicals in densely populated areas.

The thesis shows that a structured chemical fate assessment strategy can and should be applied at early stages of the evaluation of emerging chemicals to assess their fate and to direct further research. Multimedia fate models play a key role in this strategy. The three‐solubility approach is a simple, rapid method that can be used to estimate physical‐chemical properties for use in early stage evaluation (Paper I). Emissions in the indoor environment affect the urban fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals by providing additional removal pathways and prolonging urban chemical residence times compared to outdoor emissions (Paper III). Emissions of BDE 209, DINP and DEHP to Stockholm indoor air were estimated to be 0.1, 3.4 and 290 mg/capita year, respectively (Paper IV). The contribution of emissions indoors to outdoor air pollution varies between substances. For BDE 209, emissions in the indoor environment added 38 % to the mass entering Stockholm city with inflowing air. For Sweden, the indoor environment was estimated to account for 80 % of BDE 209 emissions to outdoor air (Papers II and IV). For the phthalates, outdoor emissions and/or background inflow are the dominant sources to outdoor air pollution in Stockholm and the influence of the indoor environment is limited (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2013. 40 p.
Keyword
Multimedia fate model, urban model, PBDEs, phthalate esters, indoor environment, emissions, exposure, BDE 209, DINP, DEHP
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89370 (URN)978-91-7447-690-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-05, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript

Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2013-06-17Bibliographically approved

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