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Environmental fate of chemicals released from consumer products: Multimedia modelling strategies
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this thesis was to assess the environmental fate and transport of chemicals emitted from consumer products through the development and application of modelling tools. The following hypotheses were tested: i) Multimedia fate models can be applied in a multistage assessment process to emerging chemicals when limited knowledge exists to identify the likely environmental fate and to direct further research; ii) the indoor environment acts as a source of anthropogenic substances in consumer products to the outdoor environment; and iii) chemical removal pathways in the indoor environment are important for the fate of organic chemicals in densely populated areas.

The thesis shows that a structured chemical fate assessment strategy can and should be applied at early stages of the evaluation of emerging chemicals to assess their fate and to direct further research. Multimedia fate models play a key role in this strategy. The three‐solubility approach is a simple, rapid method that can be used to estimate physical‐chemical properties for use in early stage evaluation (Paper I). Emissions in the indoor environment affect the urban fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals by providing additional removal pathways and prolonging urban chemical residence times compared to outdoor emissions (Paper III). Emissions of BDE 209, DINP and DEHP to Stockholm indoor air were estimated to be 0.1, 3.4 and 290 mg/capita year, respectively (Paper IV). The contribution of emissions indoors to outdoor air pollution varies between substances. For BDE 209, emissions in the indoor environment added 38 % to the mass entering Stockholm city with inflowing air. For Sweden, the indoor environment was estimated to account for 80 % of BDE 209 emissions to outdoor air (Papers II and IV). For the phthalates, outdoor emissions and/or background inflow are the dominant sources to outdoor air pollution in Stockholm and the influence of the indoor environment is limited (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2013. , 40 p.
Keyword [en]
Multimedia fate model, urban model, PBDEs, phthalate esters, indoor environment, emissions, exposure, BDE 209, DINP, DEHP
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89370ISBN: 978-91-7447-690-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-89370DiVA: diva2:617448
Public defence
2013-06-05, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript

Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2013-06-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessing the environmental fate of chemicals of emerging concern:a case study of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the environmental fate of chemicals of emerging concern:a case study of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers
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2002 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 117, no 2, 195-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is suggested that assessments of chemicals of emerging concern can be rationally structured around a multistage process in which fate and risk are evaluated with increasing accuracy as new data become available. An initial tentative and approximate assessment of fate and risk can identify key data gaps and justify and direct further investigations, which progressively improve the reliability of the assessment. This approach is demonstrated for a class of chemicals, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which is of increasing concern, but about which there is presently a lack of comprehensive data on properties, sources, fate and effects. Specifically, 20 PBDE congeners are investigated using the suggested approach and research needs are identified.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89367 (URN)10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00276-7 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2.
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3. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in theurban landscape
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in theurban landscape
2012 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 438, 233-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logKOA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89368 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.034 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89369 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2013-04-25Bibliographically approved

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