Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
2011 (English)In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 20, no 3, 503-512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P < 0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F-ST = 0.021, P < 0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs = 0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs = 0.11). Still, pairwise F-ST: s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F-ST-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P < 0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F-ST-outlier loci, significant at the P < 0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 20, no 3, 503-512 p.
Natural selection, Population genetics, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pulp mill effluent, Pollution, AFLP
Genetics Evolutionary Biology Environmental Sciences
Research subject Functional Zoomorphology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-89476DOI: 10.1007/s10646-011-0639-8ISI: 000289848600003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-89476DiVA: diva2:618254