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Eco-certification of Farmed Seafood: Will it Make a Difference?
Gotland University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden .
2013 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 6, 659-674 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eco-certification is widely considered a tool forreducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but whatare the likely environmental outcomes for the world’sfastest growing animal-food production sector? This articleanalyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based onspecies choice, anticipated share of the global seafoodmarket, size of eligible producers, and targeted environ-mental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reducethe negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scalepresently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemescurrently focus on species predominantly consumed in theEU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b)the share of certified products in the market as currentlyprojected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d)mechanisms or incentives for improvement among theworst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incompletecoverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sus-tainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 42, no 6, 659-674 p.
Keyword [en]
Eco-certification, Aquaculture, Seafood, LCA, Sustainability, Environmental impacts
National Category
Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-90056DOI: 10.1007/s13280-013-0409-3ISI: 000323734700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-90056DiVA: diva2:622266
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Eco-certification of farmed seafood: Environmental effects on local and global scale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eco-certification of farmed seafood: Environmental effects on local and global scale
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2013. 26 p.
Keyword
aquaculture, eco-certification, LCA, sustainability, mangrove-shrimp, Vietnam
National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-90022 (URN)
Presentation
2013-06-11, 105, Frescati Backe, Svante Arrhenius väg 21 A, Stockholm, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-22 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
2. Kind of turquoise: Effects of seafood eco-certification and sustainable consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kind of turquoise: Effects of seafood eco-certification and sustainable consumption
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aquaculture and fisheries hold promise for supplying a growing world population with healthy food produced without undermining the earth’s carrying capacity. However, just as livestock production and agriculture, seafood production can have negative environmental impacts and if a continuous or even increased supply is to be guaranteed, the pressure on affected ecosystems needs to be limited. Due in part to a perceived failure of other governance mechanisms in improving the environmental performance of the sector, a large number of voluntary market based standards for farmed and wild caught seafood have been developed. Nonetheless, the knowledge base on the extent to which implementation leads to environmental improvements remains limited. Moreover, the role of consumers in driving demand for eco-labeled seafood is presently an under-researched area. This thesis aims at reducing this knowledge gap through an examination of the potential environmental effectiveness of aquaculture eco-certification and internal, psychological variables predicted to be of importance for sustainable seafood consumption. Put differently, what is the potential of eco-certification in greening the blue revolution and fuel ‘turquoise growth’, and how can consumer demand be spurred?

In Paper I, the role of eco-certification in improving the growing aquaculture sector at large was explored. Results showed that environmental effects at global scale likely will be limited due to e.g. partial coverage of species groups and environmental impacts, and a lack of focus on Asian markets and consumers. In Paper II the environmental performance of eco-certified and non-certified mangrove-integrated shrimp farms in Vietnam was compared by using Life Cycle Assessment and put in relation to conventional, more intensive farms. While there was no substantial difference between certified and non-certified farms in terms of environmental impacts, emissions of greenhouse gasses were higher for mangrove-integrated than conventional farms due to mangrove land use change. The results from Paper III demonstrated that the body of literature investigating ecological effects of seafood eco-certification is limited. ‘Spatially explicit ecosystem service information’ (ES-information) on e.g. key ecosystem services and biodiversity in a given area is suggested to have potential to improve sustainability standards. Taking guidance from the pro-environmental behavior literature, consumers in Stockholm, Sweden were consulted on awareness of and attitudes towards eco-labeled seafood (Paper IV-V). Two variables, concern for environmental impacts and knowledge about seafood eco-labels were the best predictors for stated eco-labeled seafood purchasing. Moreover, there seemed to be a misalignment between consumers’ expectations on eco-labeled food in general and certification requirements for eco-labeled seafood.

From this set of findings, a number of improvements of current seafood eco-certification are suggested. First, include an LCA-perspective in standards to a higher degree than presently done and provide readily available ES-information in the implementation and evaluation phase of certification. Second, introduce standardized mechanisms for capturing potential environmental improvements over time. And finally, stimulate demand by targeting Asian consumers and markets as well as strengthen consumer eco-label awareness and emotional involvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2016. 65 p.
Keyword
eco-certification, eco-labeling, seafood, aquaculture, shrimp, LCA, consumer behavior
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132676 (URN)978-91-7649-486-8 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Public defence
2016-10-07, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Frescativägen 20, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2011-38
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2016-09-14 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2016-09-14Bibliographically approved

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