Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Neutral gas in Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies Haro 11 and ESO 338-IG04 measured through sodium absorption
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 552, A95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The Lyman alpha emission line of neutral hydrogen is an important tool for finding galaxies at high redshift, thus for probing the structure of the early universe. However, the resonance nature of the line and its sensitivity to dust and neutral gas is still not fully understood. Aims. We present measurements of the velocity, covering fraction and optical depth of neutral gas in front of two well-known, local blue compact galaxies that show Lyman alpha in emission: ESO 338-IG 04 and Haro 11. We thus observationally test the hypothesis that Lyman alpha can escape through neutral gas by being Doppler shifted out of resonance. Methods. We present integral field spectroscopy, obtained with the GIRAFFE/Argus spectrograph at VLT/FLAMES in Paranal, Chile. The excellent wavelength resolution allowed us to accurately measure the velocity of the ionized and neutral gas through the Ha emission and Na D absorption, which trace the ionized medium and cold interstellar gas, respectively. We also present independent measurements from the VLT/X-shooter spectrograph that confirm our results. Results. For ESO 338-IG 04 we measure no significant shift of neutral gas: the best fit velocity offset is -15 +/- 16 km s(-1). For Haro 11, we see an outflow from knot B at 44 +/- 13 km s(-1), and infalling gas towards knot C with 32 +/- 12 km s(-1). Based on the relative strength of the Na D absorption lines, we estimate low covering fractions of neutral gas (down to 10%) in all three cases. Conclusions. The Na D absorption most likely occurs in dense clumps with higher column densities than the medium in which the bulk of the Ly alpha scattering takes place. Still, we find no strong correlation between outflowing neutral gas and strong Ly alpha emission. The Ly alpha photons from these two galaxies are therefore likely to be escaping due to a low column density and/or covering fraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 552, A95
Keyword [en]
galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: ISM, galaxies: starburst, galaxies: individual: Haro 11, galaxies: individual: ESO 338-IG04
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-90375DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220702ISI: 000317912000095OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-90375DiVA: diva2:627680
Note

AuthorCount:7;

Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Observing Lyman alpha emitters - How does Lyman alpha escape from galaxies?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Observing Lyman alpha emitters - How does Lyman alpha escape from galaxies?
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission line has grown to become one of the most successful tools for finding galaxies at high redshift. At redshifts corresponding to the early cosmic times of reionization and primeval galaxy formation, the wavelength of Lyα is still accessible with ground-based facilities. Lyα is a resonance line which undergoes a complicated radiative transfer process through the neutral gas inside galaxies. This process is still not fully understood. The precise distribution and kinematics of stars, gas and dust all seem to affect the amount of Lyα that eventually escapes the galaxy. Observational studies of Lyα emitting galaxies are necessary for understanding this process in detail.

From previous observations and simulations, it is evident that outflows of neutral gas can facilitate the escape of Lyα photons, as the Doppler effect shifts the frequency out of resonance. In Paper I we explore the connection between Lyα escape and outflows of neutral gas as measured with the Na D absorption feature in two nearby Lyα emitting galaxies. We find suprisingly little evidence for such a connection, and speculate how the Na D absorption is perhaps not measuring the velocity of the gas which is the most important for Lyα escape.

Papers II and III address LARS - the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample - a project in which 14 nearby galaxies and their Lyα emission are studied in detail using the Hubble Space Telescope. The two papers describe how we directly image the Lyα emission and absorption in these galaxies, and relate it to their physical properties. We find that Lyα escape is more probable in galaxies with younger age, and lower mass, dust content and instantaneous star formation rate, whereas the total Lyα luminosity appears to be independent of these factors.

Papers IV and V then turn to higher redshifts, exploring Lyα and Lyman Continuum escape at z ∼ 2. In Paper IV we find 25 Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) using the photometric narrow-band technique, and we explore their multi-wavelength properties. Our results are well in line with similar studies at this redshift. We also find several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the sample, which may seem surprising given their high dust content, but we also review similar previous findings in the literature.

Paper V describes the method of using Hα-emitting galaxies (HAEs) in order to accurately ascertain the Lyman Continuum escape fraction from a galaxy population, a number which is crucial for the understanding of the role of galaxies during the epoch of reionization. An Hα-selected sample is less biased towards dust-free systems than UV-selected samples, which are typically used for this type of study. We also use the method on 10 strongly clustered HAEs and constrain the Lyman Continuum escape fraction to <24%, but stress that this number is strongly affected by cosmic variance and that further studies of HAEs could provide very robust constraints on the escape fraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, 2016. 52 p.
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125604 (URN)978-91-7649-336-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-10, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-01-14 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sandberg, AndreasÖstlin, GöranFathi, KambizRivera-Thorsen, Thöger
By organisation
Department of AstronomyThe Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC)
In the same journal
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 37 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf