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The budgets of heat and salinity in NEMO
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
2013 (English)In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 67, 28-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The near steady state heat and salinity budgets under surfaces of constant depth are examined in the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. It is seen that the heat fluxes in NEMO are difficult to reconcile with the idea of a deep ocean in advection-diffusion balance. Some reasons for this are that the resolved heat advection is downward above 2000 m, and that geothermal heating is, in fact, a major heat source in the deeper parts of the domain. It is also seen that isoneutral diffusion gives a very large contribution to the budgets and that the fluxes from isoneutral diffusion is in general upward. It is explained how the sign of these fluxes depends on the stratification. The heat budget for the upper 100 m of the ocean is seen to be dominated by penetrative shortwave radiation, which is so influential that we would have a mixed layer of considerable thickness even in the absence of other sources of turbulent mixing. Penetrative shortwave radiation is therefore a considerable source of potential energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 67, 28-38 p.
Keyword [en]
Heat budget, Salinity budget, NEMO, Isoneutral diffusion, Shortwave penetration
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92261DOI: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.03.006ISI: 000320477100003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-92261DiVA: diva2:638076
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-4400
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2013-07-25 Created: 2013-07-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An investigation into ocean thermodynamics and water-mass transformation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An investigation into ocean thermodynamics and water-mass transformation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents oceanic budgets of potential temperature, salinity and buoyancy as well as a novel way of diagnosing water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space. The buoyancy of seawater is given by a nonlinear function of temperature, salinity and pressure and much of the work in this thesis revolves around how fluxes of heat and salinity influence the buoyancy of seawater through these nonlinearities.

Another large part of the material in this thesis is aimed at quantifying the relative importance of different processes for the vertical transport of heat and salinity in the ocean. Careful analysis of those fluxes in an ocean model reveal the different effects of e.g. advection, diffusion and penetrative shortwave radiation. An interesting finding is that the diffusive fluxes due to isoneutral diffusion (diffusion along density surfaces) and dianeutral diffusion (diffusion across density surfaces) have opposing effects on the oceanic heat and salinity budgets.

The final major topic of this thesis is water-mass transformation. A quantitative framework for the study of water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space is introduced. A continuity equation is also derived for salinity-temperature space, which can be used to calculate the time rate of change of volume in a small salinity-temperature interval. The water-mass transformation framework is applied in an ocean general circulation model, and it is shown how the volume distribution in salinity-temperature space is affected by the different tracer fluxes in the model. It is also shown how the transformation framework is related to earlier work on thermohaline streamfunctions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockhom: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 2014. 43 p.
Keyword
Ocean thermodynamics, water-mass transformation, buoyancy
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103040 (URN)978-91-7447-919-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-03, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-05-13Bibliographically approved

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