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The Informed Gaze: On the Implications of ICT-Based Surveillance
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Information and communication technologies are not value-neutral. I examine two domains, public health surveillance and sustainability, in five papers covering: (i) the design and development of a software package for computer-assisted outbreak detection; (ii) a workflow for using simulation models to provide policy advice and a list of challenges for its practice; (iii) an analysis of design documents from three smart home projects presenting intersecting visions of sustainability; (iv) an analysis of EU-financed projects dealing with sustainability and ICT; (v) an analysis of the consequences of design choices when creating surveillance technologies. My contributions include three empirical studies of surveillance discourses where I identify the forms of action that are privileged and the values that are embedded into them. In these discourses, the presence of ICT entails increased surveillance, privileging technological expertise, and prioritising centralised forms of knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2013. , 68 p.
Series
SICS dissertation series, ISSN 1101-1335 ; 66Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 13-006
Keyword [en]
ICT, discourse, surveillance, design, sustainability, outbreak detection
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Human Aspects of ICT Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92956ISBN: 978-91-7447-669-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-92956DiVA: diva2:643436
Public defence
2013-10-15, sal C, Forum 100, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-09-23 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2013-09-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. CASE: A Framework for Computer Supported Outbreak Detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CASE: A Framework for Computer Supported Outbreak Detection
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2010 (English)In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 10, no 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In computer supported outbreak detection, a statistical method is applied to a collection of cases to detect any excess cases for a particular disease. Whether a detected aberration is a true outbreak is decided by a human expert. We present a technical framework designed and implemented at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control for computer supported outbreak detection, where a database of case reports for a large number of infectious diseases can be processed using one or more statistical methods selected by the user.

Results: Based on case information, such as diagnosis and date, different statistical algorithms for detecting outbreaks can be applied, both on the disease level and the subtype level. The parameter settings for the algorithms can be configured independently for different diagnoses using the provided graphical interface. Input generators and output parsers are also provided for all supported algorithms. If an outbreak signal is detected, an email notification is sent to the persons listed as receivers for that particular disease.

Conclusions: The framework is available as open source software, licensed under GNU General Public License Version 3. By making the code open source, we wish to encourage others to contribute to the future development of computer supported outbreak detection systems, and in particular to the development of the CASE framework.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92980 (URN)10.1186/1472-6947-10-14 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. A Workflow for Software Development within Computational Epidemiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Workflow for Software Development within Computational Epidemiology
2011 (English)In: Journal of Computational Science, ISSN 1877-7503, Vol. 2, no 3, 216-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A critical investigation into computational models developed for studying the spread of communicable disease is presented. The case in point is a spatially explicit micro-meso-macro model for the entire Swedish population built on registry data, thus far used for smallpox and for influenza-like illnesses. The lessons learned from a software development project of more than 100 person months are collected into a check list. The list is intended for use by computational epidemiologists and policy makers, and the workflow incorporating these two roles is described in detail.

National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92981 (URN)10.1016/j.jocs.2011.05.004 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
3. Sustainability through surveillance: ICT discourses in design documents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability through surveillance: ICT discourses in design documents
2013 (English)In: Surveillance & Society, ISSN 1477-7487, E-ISSN 1477-7487, Vol. 11, no 1/2, 177-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I examine design documents from three different ICT design and development projects. I argue that they present intersecting visions of sustainability entailing the wide-spread use of ICT, describe the properties of users compatible with such ICT, and provide ways of judging the users. In the design documents, the inhabitants are made individually responsible for living sustainably, and surveillance is positioned as integral to this future with the help of ICT. Underlying the visions, I identify a translation process that captures the traces of the inhabitants' lives, classifies them according to different criteria of sustainable living, and returns them to the tapestry of everyday life to convince the users to behave differently. In the discourses of these documents, surveillance translates the traces, and the translations exert new pressures on existing power relations.

Keyword
ICT, surveillance, design, discourse, translation, sustainability
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92954 (URN)
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Changing Behaviour to Save Energy: ICT-Based Surveillance for a Low-Carbon Economy in the Seventh Framework Programme
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing Behaviour to Save Energy: ICT-Based Surveillance for a Low-Carbon Economy in the Seventh Framework Programme
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93446 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
5. Detecting the Visible: The Discursive Construction of Health Threats in Syndromic Surveillance System Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting the Visible: The Discursive Construction of Health Threats in Syndromic Surveillance System Design
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93447 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved

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