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INFLUENCE OF LEACHING CONDITIONS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ASH
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Waste Framework Directive (WFD; 2008/98/EC) states that classification of hazardous ecotoxicological properties of wastes (i.e.criteria H-14), should be based on the Community legislation on chemicals (i.e.CLP Regulation 1272/2008). However, harmonizing the waste and chemical classification may involve drastic changes related to choice of leaching tests as compared to e.g. the current European standard for ecotoxic characterization of waste (CEN 14735). The primary aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the influence of leaching conditions, i.e. pH (inherent pH (~10), and 7), liquid to solid (L/S) ratio (10 and 1000L/kg) and particle size (< 4 mm, < 1 mm, and < 0.125 mm), for subsequent chemical analysis and ecotoxicity testing in relation to classification of municipal waste incineration bottom ash. The hazard potential, based on either comparisons between element levels in leachate and literature toxicity data or ecotoxicological testing of the leachates, was overall significantly higher at low particle size (<0.125 mm) as compared to particle fractions < 1 mm and < 4 mm, at pH 10 as compared to pH 7, and at L/S 10 as compared to L/S 1000. These results show that the choice of leaching conditions is crucial for H-14 classification of ash and must be carefully considered in deciding on future guidance procedures in Europe.

Keyword [en]
Ash; Hazardous Waste; H-14 classification; Ecotoxicity tests; CLP Regulation; Waste Framework Directive
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93110OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-93110DiVA: diva2:644872
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ecotoxicological classification of ash materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecotoxicological classification of ash materials
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Incineration of waste is increasing in the EU. However, in the incineration process, both fly and bottom ash materials are generated as waste that requires further action. A common goal throughout Europe is to find ways to utilize ash materials in an environmentally and economically efficient manner in accordance with the current legislation. This legislation is the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) which lists essential properties (H-criteria) to classify waste, as hazardous or not. Of these criteria, ecotoxicity (H-14) should be classified based on the wastes’ inherent hazardous properties. The WFD further states that this classification should be based on the Community legislation on chemicals (the CLP Regulation). Today, there are no harmonized quantitative criteria for the H-14 classification in the WFD, but there is a proposal from the EU on a computing model that summarizes all the measured elements classified as ecotoxic in the solid material. However, there may be a poor relationship between the theoretical ecotoxicity, based on analysed individual elements, and their actual contribution to the measured total toxicity. Therefore, to reduce the risk of incorrectly assessing the hazard potential, the overall aim of this doctoral Thesis was to develop a scientifically well-founded basis for the choice of leaching methodology and ecotoxicity testing for the H-14 classification of ash materials in Europe. In Paper I, different ash materials were classified, two leaching methods were compared and the sensitivity as well as the usefulness of a selected number of aquatic ecotoxicity tests were evaluated. Paper III and IV studied different leaching conditions, relevant for both hazard classification and risk evaluation of ash. Moreover, all four papers investigated potentially causative ecotoxic elements in the ash leachates. The results from this Thesis show that elements not classified as ecotoxic in the chemical legislation have a significant influence on the overall toxicity of the complex ash materials and will be considered if using the approach with ecotoxicity tests on ash leachates, but not if using the computing model. In addition, the approach of comparing chemically analysed elements in the solid ash with literature toxicity data for the same elements systematically over-estimates the hazard potential. This emphasizes the importance of using leaching tests in combination with ecotoxicity tests for the ecotoxicity classification of ash materials, at least if the aim is to fully understand the inherent hazard potential of the ash. To conclude, the recommendation for H-14 classification of ash is that leachates should be prepared using the leaching test and conditions evaluated in Paper III and that the generated leachates should be tested in a battery of test organisms representing a wide range of biological variation and different routes of exposure. This classification proposal has support in the CLP Regulation and contributes to harmonizing the waste and chemical legislation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2013. 35 p.
Keyword
ecotoxicity, ash, classification, leaching, Waste Framework Directive, CLP-Regulation, Hazard Identification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93114 (URN)978-91-7447-746-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-18, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2013-09-16Bibliographically approved

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