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Ecotoxicological classification of ash materials
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). (ITMx)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Incineration of waste is increasing in the EU. However, in the incineration process, both fly and bottom ash materials are generated as waste that requires further action. A common goal throughout Europe is to find ways to utilize ash materials in an environmentally and economically efficient manner in accordance with the current legislation. This legislation is the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) which lists essential properties (H-criteria) to classify waste, as hazardous or not. Of these criteria, ecotoxicity (H-14) should be classified based on the wastes’ inherent hazardous properties. The WFD further states that this classification should be based on the Community legislation on chemicals (the CLP Regulation). Today, there are no harmonized quantitative criteria for the H-14 classification in the WFD, but there is a proposal from the EU on a computing model that summarizes all the measured elements classified as ecotoxic in the solid material. However, there may be a poor relationship between the theoretical ecotoxicity, based on analysed individual elements, and their actual contribution to the measured total toxicity. Therefore, to reduce the risk of incorrectly assessing the hazard potential, the overall aim of this doctoral Thesis was to develop a scientifically well-founded basis for the choice of leaching methodology and ecotoxicity testing for the H-14 classification of ash materials in Europe. In Paper I, different ash materials were classified, two leaching methods were compared and the sensitivity as well as the usefulness of a selected number of aquatic ecotoxicity tests were evaluated. Paper III and IV studied different leaching conditions, relevant for both hazard classification and risk evaluation of ash. Moreover, all four papers investigated potentially causative ecotoxic elements in the ash leachates. The results from this Thesis show that elements not classified as ecotoxic in the chemical legislation have a significant influence on the overall toxicity of the complex ash materials and will be considered if using the approach with ecotoxicity tests on ash leachates, but not if using the computing model. In addition, the approach of comparing chemically analysed elements in the solid ash with literature toxicity data for the same elements systematically over-estimates the hazard potential. This emphasizes the importance of using leaching tests in combination with ecotoxicity tests for the ecotoxicity classification of ash materials, at least if the aim is to fully understand the inherent hazard potential of the ash. To conclude, the recommendation for H-14 classification of ash is that leachates should be prepared using the leaching test and conditions evaluated in Paper III and that the generated leachates should be tested in a battery of test organisms representing a wide range of biological variation and different routes of exposure. This classification proposal has support in the CLP Regulation and contributes to harmonizing the waste and chemical legislation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2013. , 35 p.
Keyword [en]
ecotoxicity, ash, classification, leaching, Waste Framework Directive, CLP-Regulation, Hazard Identification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93114ISBN: 978-91-7447-746-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-93114DiVA: diva2:644915
Public defence
2013-10-18, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2013-09-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash
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2011 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, 342-352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the EU, ash should be classified by its inherent hazardous effects under criterion H-14 (ecotoxic) in the Directive on waste (2008/98/EC). Today, however, there are no harmonized quantitative criterions for such a classification, but it is stated that biological test systems can be used. In this study seven ash materials were leached and characterized, both biologically and chemically. The objectives were to evaluate if (a) clear concentration-response relationships could be achieved for the selected toxicity tests (bacteria, algae, crustacean and fish). (b) some test(s) are generally more sensitive and (c) the toxic responses were consistent with the chemical analyzes. Interestingly, our results indicate that high concentrations of non-hazardous components (Ca, K) influenced the toxicity of almost all ash eluates, whereas hazardous components (e.g. Zn, Pb) only influenced the toxicity of the eluates ranked as most hazardous. If considering both hazardous and non-hazardous substances, the observed toxic responses were relatively consistent with the chemical analyzes. Our results further showed that the (sub)chronic tests were much more sensitive than the acute tests. However, the use of extrapolation factors to compensate for using the less sensitive acute tests will likely lead to either over- or underestimations of toxicity. Our recommendation is therefore that classification of waste according to H-14 should be based on (sub)chronic test data. Finally, given that treatment of the eluates prior to toxicity testing has a major significance on the concentration and speciation of released substances, further studies are needed in order to propose a relevant testing scheme.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67504 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2010.05.019 (DOI)000286411400017 ()
Note

authorCount :6

Available from: 2011-12-29 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Improved understanding of key elements governing the toxicity of energy ash eluates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved understanding of key elements governing the toxicity of energy ash eluates
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2013 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 4, 842-849 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ash from incinerated waste consists mainly of a complex mixture of metals and other inorganic elements and should be classified based on its inherent hazardous effects according to EUs Waste Framework Directive. In a previous study, we classified eight eluates from ash materials from Swedish incineration plants, both chemically and ecotoxicologically (using bacteria, algae, crustacean and fish). Based on measured concentrations in the eluates together with literature acute toxicity data on the crustacean Nitocra spinipes we identified six elements (i.e. Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, K and Ca) potentially responsible for the observed ecotoxicity. However, comparing the used test methods with N. spinipes, the acute test was relatively insensitive to the eluates, whereas the (sub)chronic test (i.e. a partial life cycle test, investigating larval development ratio) was very sensitive. The overall aim of this follow-up study was to verify if the pinpointed elements could be responsible for the observed (sub)chronic toxicity of the eluates. Individual effect levels (i.e. NOEC values) for these six elements were therefore generated using the (sub)chronic test. Our results show that for six of the eight eluates, the observed ecotoxicity can be explained by individual elements not classified as ecotoxic (Al, K and Ca) according to chemical legislation. These elements will not be considered using summation models on elements classified as ecotoxic in solid material for the classification of H-14, but will have significant implications using ecotoxicological test methods for this purpose.

Keyword
Ash, Classification, Ecotoxicity tests, H-14, Nitocra spinipes
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-90192 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2012.12.008 (DOI)000317798000009 ()
Note

AuthorCount:7;

Available from: 2013-05-28 Created: 2013-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. INFLUENCE OF LEACHING CONDITIONS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ASH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>INFLUENCE OF LEACHING CONDITIONS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ASH
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Waste Framework Directive (WFD; 2008/98/EC) states that classification of hazardous ecotoxicological properties of wastes (i.e.criteria H-14), should be based on the Community legislation on chemicals (i.e.CLP Regulation 1272/2008). However, harmonizing the waste and chemical classification may involve drastic changes related to choice of leaching tests as compared to e.g. the current European standard for ecotoxic characterization of waste (CEN 14735). The primary aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the influence of leaching conditions, i.e. pH (inherent pH (~10), and 7), liquid to solid (L/S) ratio (10 and 1000L/kg) and particle size (< 4 mm, < 1 mm, and < 0.125 mm), for subsequent chemical analysis and ecotoxicity testing in relation to classification of municipal waste incineration bottom ash. The hazard potential, based on either comparisons between element levels in leachate and literature toxicity data or ecotoxicological testing of the leachates, was overall significantly higher at low particle size (<0.125 mm) as compared to particle fractions < 1 mm and < 4 mm, at pH 10 as compared to pH 7, and at L/S 10 as compared to L/S 1000. These results show that the choice of leaching conditions is crucial for H-14 classification of ash and must be carefully considered in deciding on future guidance procedures in Europe.

Keyword
Ash; Hazardous Waste; H-14 classification; Ecotoxicity tests; CLP Regulation; Waste Framework Directive
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93110 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved
4. AN ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AGED BOTTOM ASH FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTION
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AN ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AGED BOTTOM ASH FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTION
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Municipal and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (MISWI) bottom ash is mainly deposited in landfills, but natural resources and energy could be saved if these ash materials would be used in geotechnical constructions. To enable such usage, knowledge is needed on their potential environmental impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of leachates from aged MISWI bottom ash in an environmental relevant way, using a sequential batch leaching method at the Liquid/Solid-ratio interval 1 to 3, and to test the leachates in a (sub)chronic ecotoxicity test. Also, the leachates were characterized chemically and with the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs). By comparing established ecotoxicity data for each element with chemically analysed and labile concentrations in the leachates, potentially problematic elements were identified by calculating Hazard Quotients (HQ). Overall, our results show that the ecotoxicity was in general low and decreased with increased leaching. A strong correspondence between calculated HQs and observed toxicity over the full L/S range was observed for K. However, K will likely not be problematic from a long-term environmental perspective when using the ash, since it is a naturally occurring essential macro element which is not classified as ecotoxic in the chemical legislation. Although Cu was measured in total concentrations close to where a toxic response is expected, even at L/S 3, the DGT-analysis showed that less than 50 % was present in a labile fraction, indicating that Cu is complexed by organic ligands which reduce its bioavailability.

Keyword
waste; ash; classification; potassium; DGT; ecotoxicity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93112 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved

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