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Particulate associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a portable power generator fueled with three different fuels – A comparison between petroleum diesel and two biodiesels
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1598-7093
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 115, 573-580 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fuel impact on the emission of more than 40 particulate associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the molecular weight range 178–302 Da were investigated. The fuels; neat diesel (EN 590), rape seed methyl ester (B100) and a 30% w/w blend thereof (B30) were tested on a portable power generator without any exhaust aftertreatment. Gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured along with particulate emissions and its size distribution for the different fuels. Collected diesel particles were extracted using pressurized fluid extraction and analyzed using an online hyphenated liquid chromatography–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry system.

The neat B100 and the B30 fuel produced less CO and total PAHs while the emissions of NOx and particulate matter increased compared with petroleum diesel fuel per kW h. The reduction of PAH emissions of the alternative diesel fuels were 36% and 70% for B30 and B100 respectively. While the PAH profiles for the neat diesel fuel and B30 were similar, the profile of B100 differed in the sense that the emission contained a higher percentage of PAHs with higher molecular weights. The emission of these PAHs was however larger using the neat diesel fuel with the exception for some of these higher molecular weight PAHs of which there was an increased emission using B100. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the collected particles from B100 contained a substantial amount of volatile components. A mass spectrometric full scan analysis suggests that these volatile components are in fact unburned or partially-burned fuel constituents.

It is concluded that the particles originating from biodiesel combustion might be very different from those originating from petroleum diesel combustion which places new demands on the development of measurement methodologies originally developed for particulate emissions from petroleum-based fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 115, 573-580 p.
Keyword [en]
PAH, Diesel, Biodiesel, RME, FAME
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93368DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.062ISI: 000325647000064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-93368DiVA: diva2:646544
Available from: 2013-08-01 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2017-06-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Traffic related air pollution with emphasis on particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Tire wear and biodiesel exhaust emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic related air pollution with emphasis on particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Tire wear and biodiesel exhaust emissions
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Particulate matter (PM) is regarded as one of the more important components of air pollution causing adverse health effects. A large group of compounds associated with PM are polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) which comprises polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Several PACs are known for their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties as well as have the ability to induce oxidative stress.

With the growing importance of non-exhaust particles relative to vehicular tail-pipe emissions in urban air, it is necessary to investigate the possible contribution of PAHs from the different non-exhaust sources, as these inputs are far less characterized than tail-pipe emissions and their impact on human health is largely unknown.

In this thesis automobile tires, an important non-exhaust traffic related source to particles, have been investigated for its content of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers. In a separate study benzothiazoles, a class of compounds used as vulcanization accelerators in tire manufacture, were determined to evaluate their use as potential markers for tire wear particles in ambient air.

Analysis of the tires showed a substantial variation in the PAH content between different makes of tires, likewise did the benzothiazoles content vary. By determining benzothiazole in air particles collected at a busy street in Stockholm the tire rubber contribution to airborne particles was estimated to 0.7 and 5.5 % for PM10 and all airborne particles, respectively. Together with the determined content of dibenzopyrenes and the relatively low mass contribution of tire wear to airborne particles in the urban air, estimated in this thesis as well as suggested by the literature, tire wear appears to be a minor traffic related contributor of these PAH compounds in the urban air. Nevertheless, tire wear may be an important source to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in the urban air.

Biodiesel, a biofuel produced from plant and animal fats, has been suggested as a suitable replacement for conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. While the majority of studies have focused on health outcomes from petroleum diesel exhaust exposure, human health effects related to biodiesel exhaust exposure is much less investigated.

Biodiesel exhaust particles have been compared with conventional petroleum diesel by determining >40 PAHs in two separate studies on two different diesel engines, running on neat rapeseed methyl ester (RME), petroleum diesel and a fuel blend of 3:7 RME : petroleum diesel. One of the biodiesel studies also included determination of four oxygenated PAHs (Oxy-PAHs).

The exhaust from biodiesel combustion differed from petroleum diesel combustion with regards to particle size, number of emitted particles, relative amount of volatile material adsorbed on the particles and emission of particle-associated PAHs and Oxy-PAHs. A portion of these volatile compounds originated from unburned or partially combusted biodiesel fuel, which interfered with the analysis. A sample cleanup method was therefore developed for determination of PAH in lipid rich matrices. Biodiesel combustion produced lower emission of PAHs and Oxy-PAH with the exception of a few PAHs with higher molecular weights. In comparison with petroleum diesel, the biodiesel particles had a higher relative composition of PAHs with more than four rings. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128859 (URN)978-91-7649-374-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-25, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

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