Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991–2011 including isomer-specific considerations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. PFSAs, FOSA and alkyl-FOSAAs were detected at pg/g levels, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011. The highest concentrations were found for PFOS and FOSA around the turn of the century. Shorter disappearance half-lives were observed for precursors compared to PFSAs. Assuming that these trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed diverging patterns and temporal trends from what is commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns in other edible fish species and on isomer-specific human toxicokinetics, our results suggest that fish consumption alone cannot account for the PFOS isomer patterns and trends observed in humans.
Temporal trends, herring muscle, PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonamides, precursor, human exposure
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93742OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-93742DiVA: diva2:648351