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The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
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2013 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, no 16, 8401-8409 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O-3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Alesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Alesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45 %, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O-3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O-3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11 %, respectively. Our findings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are affected by cruise ship emissions. Thus, our results may be taken as a warning signal of future pan-Arctic conditions if Arctic shipping becomes more frequent and emission regulations are not strict enough.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 13, no 16, 8401-8409 p.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-94059DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-8401-2013ISI: 000323626500018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-94059DiVA: diva2:651052
Note

AuthorCount:8;

Available from: 2013-09-24 Created: 2013-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work has been to quantify important processes for climatically relevant aerosols, and to improve our understanding of, and ability to accurately model, aerosols in the atmosphere on a large scale. This thesis contains five papers focused on different parts of the life cycle of atmospheric aerosol particles. Two papers describe the physical process of emission of primary marine aerosols. The large uncertainties in these processes are demonstrated by examining the diversity of existing parameterizations for emissions. Building from laboratory experiments to validation of model results with observations, new parameterizations are suggested. These take into account also effects of water temperature on primary marine aerosol production. In the third paper the main focus was to develop a new aerosol wet removal scheme in the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART. Removal timescales and atmospheric concentrations are found to be close to observation based estimates. The final two papers focus on atmospheric black carbon aerosols at high latitudes. As an example of increased human activities in the Arctic, local emissions from cruise ships visiting the research base in Ny Ålesund had demonstrable effects on the level of pollutants measured there. In contrast, inland Antarctic air was shown to be clean compared to the Arctic, due to the extremely long transport time from any major aerosol sources. The work done in this thesis has addressed critical uncertainties regarding the aerosol lifecycle, by better constraining aerosol emissions and atmospheric lifetimes. The development of the new wet removal scheme has improved FLEXPART model accuracy, which will be beneficial in future applications of the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2017. 54 p.
Keyword
aerosol, aerosol removal, aerosol emission, aerosol sources, FLEXPART, Arctic aerosol
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-138903 (URN)978-91-7649-669-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-670-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2017-02-16Bibliographically approved

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