The influence of study design and sex-differences on results from developmental neurotoxicity studies of bisphenol A, implications for toxicity testing
2013 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 311, no 1-2, 13-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of bisphenol A (BPA) has been investigated in a large number of studies. However, there are discrepancies in the results reported between the studies. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze factors that may contribute to these differences and to assess whether there are sex-differences in the sensitivity of certain endpoints or tests used in DNT-studies. Forty-four DNT studies of BPA were identified from the open literature. Details about study design and results from each study, as well as the criteria for DNT testing according to the standardized OECD test guideline (TG) 426, were collected in a database. This enabled systematic and detailed comparisons between studies as well as to the criteria and recommendations stated in TG 426. Multivariate analyses were also used to investigate how different factors of the study design contributed to differences in study results. The analyses showed behavioral effects were often observed for endpoints that are not required according to OECD TG 426, such as anxiety-related, social and sexual behaviors, especially at very low doses and in female offspring. On the other hand relatively few studies observed any effects on motor activity, which is commonly used in screening for neurotoxic effects in regulatory testing. However, varied and to some extent seemingly contradictory results have been reported in these studies, especially for endpoints related to motor activity and anxiety and exploration. Many studies were also poorly reported, limiting these analyses. No strong conclusions could be drawn from the multivariate analyses. A few factors of study design, such as the size of the dose and number of dose levels used and the use of litter or individual pup as statistical unit seemed to have some influence on study results. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that DNT-studies conducted according to the standardized OECD TG 426 may overlook sensitive effects of BPA, and possibly other potential endocrine disruptors, especially in female offspring.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 311, no 1-2, 13-26 p.
Bisphenol A, Developmental neurotoxicity, Sex-differences, Regulatory testing, Risk assessment
Environmental Sciences Pharmacology and Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-94022DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2013.02.012ISI: 000323585000003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-94022DiVA: diva2:651811