Short-Term Effect of the Soil Amendments Activated Carbon, Biochar, and Ferric Oxyhydroxide on Bacteria and Invertebrates
2013 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 15, 8674-8683 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of soil amendment materials that can be added to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants. To this end, a nonpolluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2, and 5% of the following four amendments: powder activated carbon (PAC), granular activated carbon, corn stover biochar, and ferric oxyhydroxide powder, which have previously been proven to sequester pollutants in soil. The resulting immediate effects (i.e., without aging the mixtures before carrying out tests) on the springtail Folsomia candida, the earthworm species Aporectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, a suite of ten prokaryotic species, and a eukaryote (the yeast species Pichia anomalia) were investigated. Reproduction of F. candida was significantly increased compared to the unamended soil when 2% biochar was added to it. None of the treatments caused a negative effect on reproduction. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5% amendment of biochar. In avoidance tests, E. fetida preferred biochar compared to all other amendments including the unamended soil. All amendments reduced the inhibition of luminescence to V. fischeri, i.e., were beneficial for the bacteria, with PAC showing the greatest improvement. The effects of the amendments on the suite of prokaryotic species and the eukaryote were variable, but overall the 2% biochar dose provided the most frequent positive effect on growth. It is concluded that the four soil amendments had variable but never strongly deleterious effects on the bacteria and invertebrates studied here during the respective recommended experimental test periods.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 47, no 15, 8674-8683 p.
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95091DOI: 10.1021/es400917gISI: 000323013400073OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-95091DiVA: diva2:658564
Research Council of Norway 192936;
Lindum Ressurs and Gjenvinning A/S 2013-10-222013-10-212013-10-22Bibliographically approved