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Effects of age and speaking rate on voice onset time: The production of voiceless stops by near-native L2 speakers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
2015 (English)In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 37, no 1, 71-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As part of a research project on the investigation of second language (L2) ultimate attainment in 41 Spanish early and late near-native speakers of L2 Swedish, the present study reports on voice onset time (VOT) analyses of the production of Swedish word-initial voiceless stops, /p t k/. VOT is analyzed in milliseconds as well as in percentages of word duration, thereby accounting for speaking rate effects. The results revealed an overall age effect on VOT production; however, this age effect became salient and sta­tistically significant for all three stops only when speaking rate was taken into consider­ation. Similarly, when speaking rate was accounted for, only a small minority of the late learners exhibited actual nativelike L2 behavior, and most (but far from all) early learn­ers performed within native-speaker range. The results are taken as an indication for relative VOT, as opposed to absolute VOT, constituting a reliable measure of nativelike L2 stop production, which has important implications for future research on age effects and maturational constraints in L2 acquisition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 37, no 1, 71-100 p.
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95251DOI: 10.1017/S0272263114000151ISI: 000349973100003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-95251DiVA: diva2:659177
Projects
Age of onset and ultimate attainment in second language acquisition (The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, grant no. 1999-0383:01)
Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Effects of Age of Onset on VOT in L2 Aquisition and L1 Attrition: A Study of the Speech Production and Perception of Advanced Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Age of Onset on VOT in L2 Aquisition and L1 Attrition: A Study of the Speech Production and Perception of Advanced Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the role of age in second language (L2) acquisition and first language (L1) attrition. The focus is on Voice Onset Time (VOT) in the production and categorical perception of word-initial L1 and L2 stops in highly advanced L1 Spanish learners of L2 Swedish. Using as the point of departure a maturational constraints perspective and the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), Study I examines the impact of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the production of L2 Swedish voiceless stops. The results show that there are AO effects even in the speech of highly advanced L2 learners and that the incidence of nativelike L2 learners is considerably lower than earlier assumed. However, conclusions like these are only possible when speaking rate is accounted for, thereby highlighting the importance of speaking rate effects on VOT as a measure of nativelikeness. Like Study I, Study II reveals age effects on the same L2 learners’ categorical perceptions of L2 Swedish stops. Moreover, after combining the results with the data from Study I, the incidence of nativelike behavior drops remarkably with no late L2 learner performing within the range of native-speaker production and perception. The results suggest that L2 acquisition of phonetic/phonological aspects is especially sensitive to AO effects. It is concluded that theories on maturational constraints, including the CPH, cannot be refuted on the basis of the present data. Study III concerns the same participants’ production and perception of L1 Spanish stops. Age of reduced contact (ARC) is identified as an important predictor for L1 attrition and retention of voiceless stop production, although not of stop perception. This discrepancy is related to different activation thresholds as proposed by the Activation Threshold Hypothesis (ATH). It is further suggested that early bilinguals are more dependent on high-frequency L1 use than late bilinguals when compensating for age effects, but only in production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University, 2013. 55 p.
Series
Dissertations in Bilingualism, ISSN 1400-5921 ; 23
Keyword
second language acquisition, first language attrition, maturational constraints, critical period, voice onset time, stop production, categorical perception, activation threshold hypothesis, L1 use, highly proficient L2 learners, L1 Spanish, L2 Swedish
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-94887 (URN)978-91-7447-793-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-22, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Age of onset and ultimate attainment in second language acquisition, The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, grant no. 1999-0383:01First language attrition in advanced second language speakers, Swedish Research Council, grant no. 421-2004-1975
Note

At the time of doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted. Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-10-31 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-11-08Bibliographically approved

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