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Pesticides in coastal Tanzania: Management, policy and concerns for human health and the environment
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is the first major assessment of pesticide management in Zanzibar, Tanzania. It underlines the risks for human health and the environment that are likely under the current pesticide management regime. The thesis explores different parts of the pesticide management system, including legislation, public institutions, import, distribution and sales. It also examines farmers’ pesticide management and risk-awareness, as well as agricultural extension and the sources of information available to farmers. The methods used include semi-structured and open-ended interviews, review of relevant documents, collection and analysis of import statistics, and participant observations. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders within, or with knowledge of, the pesticide management system, such as managers, distributors, retailers, researchers, extension officers and farmers. The results are presented in five papers. Overall, the pesticide governance in Zanzibar exhibits major weaknesses that expose both retailers and farmers to a variety of toxic pesticides. Both the legislative and institutional setups are inadequate for the safe regulation of pesticides, due to unclear division of responsibilities and insufficient communication between ministries. There is lack of knowledge of pesticides and their side-effects among farmers, retailers and extension officers, but also among some governmental officers and medical personnel. The promotion of pesticides during the current pesticide management regime is problematic, as there is no evaluation of the current pesticide use. Alternative pest management programs show good potential but need to be quantitatively assessed in order to understand how they might contribute to increasing yields. The availability of pesticides in the farming community is in need of further attention as not only pesticide users, but also their family members and neighbors, are exposed to pesticides. Farmer training is the most urgent priority to reduce the hazardous pesticide exposures and potential side-effects seen today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2013. , 51 p.
Keyword [en]
sub-Saharan Africa, agrochemicals, legislation, farmer education, hazards, subsidies
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95862ISBN: 978-91-7447-794-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-95862DiVA: diva2:661919
Public defence
2013-12-19, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Papers 3-5: Manuscripts.

Available from: 2013-11-27 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania
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2011 (English)In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 13, no 3, 641-656 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an interview study conducted among smallholder rice farmers in Rufiji, Tanzania coastal mainland, and in Cheju, Zanzibar, farmer’s pesticide use and risk awareness were assessed. The farmers generally lacked knowledge or possibilities to manage the pesticides as prescribed by the manufacturers. Few farmers knew what kind of pesticides they were using and had never seen the original packages, as pesticides were usually sold per weight or already diluted without labeling. Protective equipment was rarely used since they were not aware of risks associated with pesticides or did not know where to purchase protective gear. Only half of the farmers were aware of pesticides’ health hazards and few associated pesticides with environmental problems. The pesticide use was relatively low, but based on farmers’ pesticide handling and application practices, health risks were a major concern. Most farmers did not believe in successful rice cultivation without using pesticides to control pests. However, estimated yields did not differ between pesticide users or farmers using conventional methods or neem tree extract. To avoid negative effects on human health and the environment, the farmers need basic education and better assistance in their farming practices and pesticide management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2011
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-85209 (URN)10.1007/s10668-010-9281-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-01-17 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Weak Governmental Institutions Impair the Managementof Pesticide Import and Sales in Zanzibar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weak Governmental Institutions Impair the Managementof Pesticide Import and Sales in Zanzibar
2013 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 1, 72-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poor pesticide handling practices and risk awarenessamong African farmers puts human health and the environment at risk. To investigate information availableto farmers in Zanzibar (Tanzania), an interview study was conducted with retailers, and governmental pesticideimportation to Zanzibar was examined. Pesticide retailersin Zanzibar did not have the necessary knowledge to safelyhandle or to advise farmers on proper use of pesticides.Licensed shop owners were rarely found in the shops;instead, untrained personnel were employed to sell thepesticides. Implementation of the legislation was weak,mainly due to lack of surveillance by governmental institutions.Poor governmental importation practices andunregulated private imports indicate serious weakness inthe management of pesticide importation in Zanzibar. The situation calls for increased attention on the monitoring ofpesticide importation and sales to protect the health offarmers and retailers, as well as the environment.

Keyword
Tanzania, Legislation, Interview study, Pesticide retailer
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-85207 (URN)10.1007/s13280-012-0338-6 (DOI)000313722400008 ()
Available from: 2013-01-17 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Pesticide governance in Zanzibar (Tanzania): compromising sustainable agricultural development
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95849 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2017-03-31
4. Alternative pest management programs and the need for farmer education in Zanzibar, Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative pest management programs and the need for farmer education in Zanzibar, Tanzania
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95852 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2013-11-05
5. Pesticide use and reported health symptoms among rice farmers in Zanzibar, Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pesticide use and reported health symptoms among rice farmers in Zanzibar, Tanzania
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95855 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2013-11-05

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