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Multiyear measurements of ebullitive methane flux from three subarctic lakes
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Linköping University, Sweden.
2013 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 118, no 3, 1307-1321 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ebullition (bubbling) from small lakes and ponds at high latitudes is an important yet unconstrained source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Small water bodies are most abundant in permanently frozen peatlands, and it is speculated that their emissions will increase as the permafrost thaws. We made 6806 measurements of CH4 ebullition during four consecutive summers using a total of 40 bubble traps that were systematically distributed across the depth zones of three lakes in a sporadic permafrost landscape in northernmost Sweden. We identified significant spatial and temporal variations in ebullition and observed a large spread in the bubbles' CH4 concentration, ranging from 0.04% to 98.6%. Ebullition followed lake temperatures, and releases were significantly larger during periods with decreasing atmospheric pressure. Although shallow zone ebullition dominated the seasonal bubble CH4 flux, we found a shift in the depth dependency towards higher fluxes from intermediate and deep zones in early fall. The average daily flux of 13.4mg CH4 m(-2) was lower than those measured in most other high-latitude lakes. Locally, however, our study lakes are a substantial CH4 source; we estimate that 350kg of CH4 is released via ebullition during summer (June-September), which is approximately 40% of total whole year emissions from the nearby peatland. In order to capture the large variability and to accurately scale lake CH4 ebullition temporally and spatially, frequent measurements over long time periods are critical.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 118, no 3, 1307-1321 p.
Keyword [en]
methane, ebullition, high-latitude lakes
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Geochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-96126DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20103ISI: 000325549900028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-96126DiVA: diva2:663833
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2013-11-13 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Emission of methane from northern lakes and ponds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emission of methane from northern lakes and ponds
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Northern lakes and ponds are abundant and emit large amounts of the potent climate forcer methane to the atmosphere at rates prone to change with amplified Arctic warming. In spite of being important, fluxes from surface waters are not well understood. Long-term measurements are lacking and the dominant and irregular transport mode ebullition (bubbling) is rarely quantified, which complicate the inclusion of lakes and ponds in the global methane budget. This thesis focuses on variations in emissions on both local and regional scales. A synthesis of methane fluxes from almost all studied sites constrains uncertainties and demonstrates that northern lakes and ponds are a dominant source at high latitudes. Per unit area variations in flux magnitudes among different types of water bodies are mainly linked to water depth and type of sediment. When extrapolated, total area is key and thus post-glacial lakes dominate emissions over water bodies formed by peat degradation or thermokarst processes. Further, consistent multiyear measurements in three post-glacial lakes in Stordalen, northern Sweden, reveal that seasonal ebullition, primarily driven by fermentation of acetate, can be predicted by easily measured parameters such as temperature and heat energy input over the ice-free season. Assuming that most water bodies respond similarly to warming, this thesis also suggests that northern lakes and ponds will release substantially more methane before the end of the century, primarily as a result of longer ice-free seasons. Improved uncertainty reductions of both current and future estimates rely on increased knowledge of landscape-level processes related to changes in aquatic systems and organic loading with permafrost thaw, as well as more high-quality measurements, seldom seen in contemporary data. Sampling distributed over entire ice-free seasons and across different depth zones is crucial for accurately quantifying methane emissions from northern lakes and ponds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper, 2016. 42 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologiska vetenskaper, 361
Keyword
lakes, ponds, water bodies, methane, fluxes, ebullition, stable isotopes, arctic, subarctic, carbon cycling, climate change
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126823 (URN)978-91-7649-362-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-29, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007–4547
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

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