Disulfide Scrambling in Superoxide Dismutase 1 Reduces Its Cytotoxic Effect in Cultured Cells and Promotes Protein Aggregation
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, e78060- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Mutations in the gene coding for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are associated with familiar forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These mutations are believed to result in a gain of toxic function, leading to neuronal degeneration. The exact mechanism is still unknown, but misfolding/aggregation events are generally acknowledged as important pathological events in this process. Recently, we observed that demetallated apoSOD1, with cysteine 6 and 111 substituted for alanine, is toxic to cultured neuroblastoma cells. This toxicity depended on an intact, high affinity Zn2+ site. It was therefor contradictory to discover that wild-type apoSOD1 was not toxic, despite of its high affinity for Zn2+. This inconsistency was hypothesized to originate from erroneous disulfide formation involving C6 and C111. Using high resolution non-reducing SDS-PAGE, we have in this study demonstrated that the inability of wild-type apoSOD1 to cause cell death stems from formation of non-native intramolecular disulfides. Moreover, monomeric apoSOD1 variants capable of such disulfide scrambling aggregated into ThT positive oligomers under physiological conditions without agitation. The oligomers were stabilized by intermolecular disulfides and morphologically resembled what has in other neurodegenerative diseases been termed protofibrils. Disulfide scrambling thus appears to be an important event for misfolding and aggregation of SOD1, but may also be significant for protein function involving cysteines, e. g. mitochondrial import and copper loading.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 8, no 10, e78060- p.
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-96646DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078060ISI: 000325894100098OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-96646DiVA: diva2:667770