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Family Migration and Gender Differentials in Earnings: The Impact of Occupational Sex Segregation
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Family migration is often associated with an increase in men’s income and a decrease in women’s income. Attempts have been made to explain this gender imbalance with gender differences in economic bargaining power and gender traditional ideology. This study addresses a far less studied underlying mechanism, namely the impact of occupational sex segregation. Female-dominated occupations have been suggested to have a secondary migration status, which may be why women do not gain as much as men from moving. I test this hypothesis using unique Swedish population register data, including all dual-earner couples aged 20 to 55 with at least one common child in any of the years 1998-2001, and follow how their annual earnings trajectories and changes in the women’s economic dependency in the household are associated with their migration status. Results reveal that it is not until after six years that men gain from moving. A substantial part of these gains stems from moving men working in occupations with high earnings potential. In the first few years after a move, women’s earnings trajectories suffer, to some extent because of additional children being born. Six years after a move, moving women’s earnings trajectories have recovered and are similar to those of staying women. Women’s gains, however, are still lower than men’s even after adjusting for occupational differences. Women and men gain more from moving if they are working in occupations that exist all over the country. Men also have steeper earnings trajectories if partnered with women in these types of occupations, regardless of whether the couple moves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 50 p.
Series
Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISSN 0281-8728 ; 18
Keyword [en]
family migration, earnings, gender, occupation, sex segregation
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97095OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-97095DiVA: diva2:669204
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gendered Migration Patterns within a Sex Segregated Labor Market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendered Migration Patterns within a Sex Segregated Labor Market
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When a couple moves, the woman is often placed at a disadvantage. Moves are more often motivated by men’s career advancement opportunities, and men tend to gain more economically from moving. In this thesis, these patterns are examined with an eye on the role of sex segregation on the labor market. Results from the four studies indicate that there exist gender differences in couples’ migration patterns in Sweden. These differences cannot be completely explained by occupational sex segregation or by traditional gender ideologies.

I. Compared to men, women are more willing to move for the sake of their partner’s employment opportunities. Further, fathers move for the sake of their own career more often than mothers. Gender differences in these patterns are greater among individuals with gender traditional attitudes, but also exist in more egalitarian relationships.

II. In a couple, the man’s educational attainment affects couples’ mobility more than the woman’s. This is because highly educated men’s occupations have more career advancement opportunities and larger differences in wages between regions, whereas women’s occupations have higher geographic ubiquity. Both partners’ occupational characteristics have an equal impact on the couple’s mobility.

III. When a couple moves, the man benefits more financially than the woman. This differential cannot be wholly explained by occupational differences. Some of the lag in women’s earnings development can be accounted for by childbearing following a move. Occupations’ with greater geographic ubiquity correlate with more positive financial outcomes for both men and women following a move.

IV. At the start of co-residence, it is more common that the woman moves to the man than vice versa, and women generally move longer distances than men. Age differentails between partners explain part of these migration differences. Furthermore, men’s migration propensities and distance moved are more affected by labor market ties than women’s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013. 39 p.
Series
Dissertation series / Stockholm University Demography Unit, ISSN 1404-2304 ; 10
Keyword
family migration, gender, tied moving, regional mobility, earnings, occupation, sex segregation, co-residence, migration distance, education
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97099 (URN)978-91-87235-60-3 (ISBN)978-91-87235-59-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008- 0489
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted.

Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-05-27Bibliographically approved

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