Legacy persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in Sweden: from indoor environments to remote areas
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were taken every two months for a year in 2009-2010 at two sites in northern Sweden and analyzed for a suite of legacy and emerging persistent organic chemicals including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). To further investigate the urban occurrence and contribution to remote contamination of flame retardants, indoor air, ventilation system air, and dust were sampled in several microenvironments in Stockholm during the winter of 2012 for analysis of PBDEs, isomer-specific hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and NFRs. Outdoor air and soil samples were also sampled around the same time period for analysis of the same compounds. Five emerging pollutants were detected in atmospheric deposition: the current-use pesticides trifluralin and chlorothalonil; and the NFRs 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis(tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and Dechlorane Plus (DP). A decrease in the fraction of the anti isomer of DP was observed at the more remote site, indicating isomer-selective degradation or isomerization during long range atmospheric transport. The more remote site also received more total deposition of organic pollutants despite its receiving less precipitation. Although PBDEs and emerging organic pollutants were detected, the bulk of the deposition consisted of PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) at both sites. Several NFRs were identified in indoor and ventilation air samples including TBECH, pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,2-bis(pentabromodiphenyl)ethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). There was no significant difference between concentrations of contaminants in ventilation system air and indoor air indicating that the flame retardants included in this study reach the outdoor environment via ventilation systems. Dust and outdoor air samples have only been analyzed for HBCDDs so far. HBCDD concentrations in apartments, offices, and schools were lower than reported concentrations for other countries in similar microenvironments. However, an enrichment of α-HBCDD compared to γ-HBCDD was observed in dust taken from near treated products in stores when compared to dust taken directly from those products. Very low concentrations of HBCDDs were detected in outdoor air.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2013. , 20 p.
persistent organic pollutants, atmospheric deposition, arctic, flame retardant, POP, long range transport
Research subject Environmental Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97094OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-97094DiVA: diva2:669327
2013-12-19, Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Larsson, Per, ProfessorJahnke, Annika
de Wit, Cynthia, ProfessorSellström, Ulla, Forskare
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600
List of papers