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Gendered Migration Patterns within a Sex Segregated Labor Market
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When a couple moves, the woman is often placed at a disadvantage. Moves are more often motivated by men’s career advancement opportunities, and men tend to gain more economically from moving. In this thesis, these patterns are examined with an eye on the role of sex segregation on the labor market. Results from the four studies indicate that there exist gender differences in couples’ migration patterns in Sweden. These differences cannot be completely explained by occupational sex segregation or by traditional gender ideologies.

I. Compared to men, women are more willing to move for the sake of their partner’s employment opportunities. Further, fathers move for the sake of their own career more often than mothers. Gender differences in these patterns are greater among individuals with gender traditional attitudes, but also exist in more egalitarian relationships.

II. In a couple, the man’s educational attainment affects couples’ mobility more than the woman’s. This is because highly educated men’s occupations have more career advancement opportunities and larger differences in wages between regions, whereas women’s occupations have higher geographic ubiquity. Both partners’ occupational characteristics have an equal impact on the couple’s mobility.

III. When a couple moves, the man benefits more financially than the woman. This differential cannot be wholly explained by occupational differences. Some of the lag in women’s earnings development can be accounted for by childbearing following a move. Occupations’ with greater geographic ubiquity correlate with more positive financial outcomes for both men and women following a move.

IV. At the start of co-residence, it is more common that the woman moves to the man than vice versa, and women generally move longer distances than men. Age differentails between partners explain part of these migration differences. Furthermore, men’s migration propensities and distance moved are more affected by labor market ties than women’s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013. , 39 p.
Series
Dissertation series / Stockholm University Demography Unit, ISSN 1404-2304 ; 10
Keyword [en]
family migration, gender, tied moving, regional mobility, earnings, occupation, sex segregation, co-residence, migration distance, education
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97099ISBN: 978-91-87235-60-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-87235-59-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-97099DiVA: diva2:670477
Public defence
2014-01-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008- 0489
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted.

Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-05-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Gender, Gender Ideology and Couples’ Migration Decisions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender, Gender Ideology and Couples’ Migration Decisions
(English)In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Couples generally move to accommodate men’s, rather than women’s, career opportunities.  Using Swedish panel data including 1039 married or cohabiting individuals, this study examines the importance of traditional gender ideology and behavior in explaining this pattern. Two dimensions of gender and migration are examined: (1) the willingness to move for a partner’s career, and (2) the likelihood of couple migration for one’s own work or educational opportunities. Findings show that women are more willing to move for their partner’s career. Childless women are more likely to move with their partners to pursue their own work or education than childless men, whereas mothers are less likely to report this than fathers. Gender ideology and division of household responsibilities do not explain the gender differences in migration behavior. They are more important for individuals’ willingness to move for their partners, with particularly pronounced gender differences among non-egalitarian respondents.

Keyword
family migration, gender, gender roles, tied moving, regional mobility
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-96962 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008- 0489
Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Couples' Education and Regional Mobility - the Importance of Occupation, Income and Gender
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Couples' Education and Regional Mobility - the Importance of Occupation, Income and Gender
2013 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 19, no 5, 522-536 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People with high education are more geographically mobile than people with lower education. Further, highly educated men are more mobile than highly educated women, and the man's education affects couples' migration propensities more than the woman's. This study examines whether the reasons for the higher migration propensities among highly educated people are the occupational characteristics and income commonly associated with high education. Further, the study examines whether the reason for the asymmetric effect of men's education relative to women's is that these occupational characteristics and income are unevenly distributed between men and women with similar educational levels. I studied dual-earner couples, with common children, residing in Sweden in 1997-2006. Results from logistic regressions indicate that both men's and women's education are positively related to couples' migration propensities, and that men's education has a larger impact on migration than women's, before adjusting for income and occupational characteristics. A substantial portion of the increased risk of migration among highly educated people can be attributed to income and occupational characteristics. Also, to a large extent, the differential effects of men's and women's education can be explained by the different types of occupations held by men and women within the same educational level, as well as by gender differences in monetary returns from education. When adjusting for these differences, only very minor gender differences in the effect of education remain. Despite theories on gender ideology, which implies men's attributes would dominate migration decisions, occupational characteristics have similar effects for men and women.

Keyword
family migration, sex segregation, gender, labour market, occupation, education
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92790 (URN)10.1002/psp.1730 (DOI)000321758800006 ()
Note

AuthorCount:1;

Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Family Migration and Gender Differentials in Earnings: The Impact of Occupational Sex Segregation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family Migration and Gender Differentials in Earnings: The Impact of Occupational Sex Segregation
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Family migration is often associated with an increase in men’s income and a decrease in women’s income. Attempts have been made to explain this gender imbalance with gender differences in economic bargaining power and gender traditional ideology. This study addresses a far less studied underlying mechanism, namely the impact of occupational sex segregation. Female-dominated occupations have been suggested to have a secondary migration status, which may be why women do not gain as much as men from moving. I test this hypothesis using unique Swedish population register data, including all dual-earner couples aged 20 to 55 with at least one common child in any of the years 1998-2001, and follow how their annual earnings trajectories and changes in the women’s economic dependency in the household are associated with their migration status. Results reveal that it is not until after six years that men gain from moving. A substantial part of these gains stems from moving men working in occupations with high earnings potential. In the first few years after a move, women’s earnings trajectories suffer, to some extent because of additional children being born. Six years after a move, moving women’s earnings trajectories have recovered and are similar to those of staying women. Women’s gains, however, are still lower than men’s even after adjusting for occupational differences. Women and men gain more from moving if they are working in occupations that exist all over the country. Men also have steeper earnings trajectories if partnered with women in these types of occupations, regardless of whether the couple moves.

Publisher
50 p.
Series
Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISSN 0281-8728 ; 18
Keyword
family migration, earnings, gender, occupation, sex segregation
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97095 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
4. Who Moves to Whom?: Gender Differences in the Distance  Moved to a Shared Residence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who Moves to Whom?: Gender Differences in the Distance  Moved to a Shared Residence
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although family migration is a well examined topic, the migration that takes place at the start of co-residence of couples is so far hardly studied. This study examines gender differences in who moves to whom and who moves the longer distance when couples start a co-residential union. Analyses are performed based on Swedish register data, 1991-2008, including detailed longitudinal information on the residence of all couples in Sweden who married or had a child as cohabitants in 2008. The study reveals that even after adjusting for gender differences in age, local-, family-, and labor market ties, education, occupation, and economic bargaining power, it is more common for the woman to move to the man than vice versa, and the woman is on average moving longer distances than the man. Gender differences are especially pronounced when partners live far apart prior to union formation. Among these couples the woman on average moves 40 kilometers longer than the man. The proposed intervening factors explain half of this excess distance. Men’s likelihood to move and their distance moved is more affected by labor market ties than women’s, indicating that traditional gender ideologies matter for understanding migration patterns at the start of co-residence.

Publisher
44 p.
Series
Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISSN 0281-8728 ; 19
Keyword
union formation, migration, migration distance, co-residence, gender
National Category
Sociology Human Geography
Research subject
Sociological Demography; Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97096 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7495
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved

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