Increasing Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Scandinavian Otters (Lutra lutra) between 1972 and 2011: A New Threat to the Otter Population?
2013 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 20, 11757-11765 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Liver samples from 140 otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden and Norway were analyzed for 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-C15), 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,C6,C8,C10) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound accounting for approximately 80% of the fluorinated contaminants and showing concentrations up to 16 mu g/g wet weight. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the dominant PFCA (up to 640 ng/g wet weight) closely followed by the C10 and C11 homologues. A spatial comparison between otters from southwestern Norway, southern and northern Sweden sampled between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the samples from southern Sweden had generally the largest contaminant load, but two PFCAs and FOSA were higher concentrated in the Norwegian samples. A temporal trend study was performed on otters from southern Sweden collected between 1972 and 2011. Seven PFCAs (C8-C14), PFOS and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) showed significantly increasing trends with doubling times between 5.5 and 13 years. The PFCAs also showed significantly increasing trends over the period 2002 to 2011. These findings together with the exceptionally high liver concentrations of PFOS are of great concern for the Scandinavian otter populations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013. Vol. 47, no 20, 11757-11765 p.
Ecology Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97037DOI: 10.1021/es401485tISI: 000326123600050OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-97037DiVA: diva2:670481
Swedish EPA; County board of Sodermanland (Sweden); County board of Uppland (Sweden); Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management 2013-12-032013-12-022013-12-03Bibliographically approved