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Mortality in Adult-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes Is Associated With Poor Glycemic Control Results from the HUNT Study
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
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2013 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 36, no 12, 3971-3978 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVEKnowledge on mortality in autoimmune diabetes with adult onset is limited. We compared mortality in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and type 2 diabetes, taking into account metabolic risk factors, HbA(1c), lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSParticipants of the population-based HUNT2 Study (second survey of the Norwegian HelseUndersOkelsen i Nord-TrOndelag Study; n = 64,264) were followed up prospectively for mortality in the Cause of Death Registry (1995-2009). Diabetes with onset 35 years was classified as autoimmune diabetes in adults if anti-GAD was positive (n = 208) and as type 2 diabetes if anti-GAD was negative (n = 2,425). Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model.RESULTSPrevalence of the metabolic syndrome was lower in autoimmune diabetes than in type 2 diabetes (55 vs. 77%, P < 0.001). Still, autoimmune diabetes was associated with an increased risks of mortality from all-causes (HR 1.55 [95% CI 1.25-1.92]), CVD (1.87 [1.40-2.48]), and IHD (2.39 [1.57-3.64]), equally high as in type 2 diabetes in analyses where individuals without diabetes were used as the reference group. The increased risk was not explained by overweight, lifestyle, socioeconomic position, or presence of the metabolic syndrome. Excess mortality was primarily observed in individuals with elevated HbA(1c).CONCLUSIONSMortality in autoimmune diabetes was as high as in type 2 diabetes, despite a more favorable baseline metabolic risk profile. Excess risk was associated with poor glycemic control. The results from this study, the largest so far on mortality in autoimmune diabetes in adults, underscore the importance of optimal treatment modalities to improve survival in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 36, no 12, 3971-3978 p.
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98074DOI: 10.2337/dc13-0564ISI: 000327211500045OAI: diva2:682798


Funding agencies:

GlaxoSmithKline Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research 

Available from: 2013-12-30 Created: 2013-12-27 Last updated: 2014-01-03Bibliographically approved

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