Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their potential precursors
2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, 242-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Since 2000 there has been an on-going industrial transition to replace long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic adds (PFSAs) and their precursors. To date, information on these replacements including their chemical identities, however, has not been published or made easily accessible to the public, hampering risk assessment and management of these chemicals. Here we review information on fluorinated alternatives in the public domain. We identify over 20 fluorinated substances that are applied in [i] fluoropolymer manufacture, [ii] surface treatment of textile, leather and carpets, [iii] surface treatment of food contact materials, [iv] metal plating, [v] fire-fighting foams, and [vi] other commercial and consumer products. We summarize current knowledge on their environmental releases, persistence, and exposure of biota and humans. Based on the limited information available, it is unclear whether fluorinated alternatives are safe for humans and the environment. We identify three major data gaps that must be filled to perform meaningful risk assessments and recommend generation of the missing data through cooperation among all stakeholders (industry, regulators, academic scientists and the public).
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 60, 242-248 p.
Perfluorinated alkyl substances, Perfluorinated carboxylic acids, Perfluorinated sulfonic acids, Fluorinated alternatives
Environmental Sciences Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98319DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.021ISI: 000327566900028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-98319DiVA: diva2:683373