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Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-2011
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, 224-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 60, 224-231 p.
Keyword [en]
Mothers milk, Dioxin, PCDD, PCDF, dioxin-like PCB, Time series
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98318DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.019ISI: 000327566900026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-98318DiVA: diva2:683409
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistent halogenated pollutants in mothers´ milk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent halogenated pollutants in mothers´ milk
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are substances that degrade slowly, are distributed wotldwide, bioaccumulate and are harmful to both animals and humans. The release of POPs to the environment was the preamble to human background contamination. In the mid-20th century it became clear to scientists and policy makers that even the mothers´ milk was contaminated by POPs. This led to national and global monitoring programs to assess the extent of contamination and subsequently to ban several POPs via the Stockholm Convention.

The concentrations of dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), -furans (PCDF) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) is analysed in a retrospektive time trend study. The findings show a faster decrease of dioxin concentrations 2002-2011, compared to the whole series, 1972-2011. The transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from mother to child via the milk is investigated and a relationship between both the PBDE molecule’s size and time post partum of the sampling and the ability to transfer to the milk is found. A literature review concerning the POPs in human milk finds, in addition to accounting for POP concentrations; that some substances are investigated more thoroughly than others; DDT and PCB compared to Aldrine and Toxaphene and that certain geographical areas are more well-studied than others, e.g. Europe compared to Africa. The study also shows a strong over all need for better reporting protocols. To understand the current and emerging POPs present in mothers´ milk screening of a larger than normal sample of mothers´ milk can give new insights. The development of a method designed to tackle the problems of large fat rich sample and still to be as benign as possible to the analytes was undertaken. The method is subsequently applied to a both Swedish and Chinese pooled sample to show the differences in POP exposure between countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2014. 41 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103050 (URN)978-91-7447-921-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-05, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved
2. Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis deals with several aspects of monitoring of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in biological matrices, for example choice of sample, sampling design, and statistical treatment of data both for temporal and spatial trends and for compliance towards a set target value. The efficiency has been evaluated through statistical power analyses. Contaminant data from more than 4 decades from the Swedish National Monitoring Programs for monitoring of contaminants in biota (marine, freshwater and human health), has been quantitatively evaluated both temporally and spatially and for compliance. The aim was also to evaluate the suitability of different matrices, i.e. herring (Clupea harengus), guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), pike (Esox lucius), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and human milk, for monitoring of POPs with the overall aim to improve the assessment within monitoring programs.

The results show that variation can be reduced by using pooled samples including more specimens but fewer chemical analyses, which in turn generate a higher statistical power to a lower cost, at least in cases where the cost of collection and sampling is considerably lower than the cost of chemical analysis. However, there are also a number of advantages using individual samples, such as information of sample variance and maximum value, which allows the choice of an appropriate central measure and direct adjustment of confounding factors.

Generally, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have decreased both in marine and freshwater biota but concentrations are still higher in the Baltic compared to e.g. the North Sea. The levels of dioxinlike-PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have decreased in human milk over time, but not to the same extent in fish and guillemot egg from the Baltic and the freshwater environment. This may be explained by the dietary advice developed by the Swedish Food Administration with the goal that girls, reproductive aged, and pregnant women should eat less food containing high levels of PCDD/Fs. Thus the levels in milk could continue to decrease at the same rate although the temporal trend in the environment has slowed down or leveled out.

The most essential regarding the choice of species and matrices for contaminant monitoring, is that the species and organ fit the purpose of the monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016. 83 p.
Keyword
Environmental monitoring, temporal trends, power analysis, sampling strategy, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, fish, bird eggs, blue mussels, human milk
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134769 (URN)978-91-7649-527-8 (ISBN)978-91-7649-528-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved

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