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Suspension of TBT-contaminated sediment causes physiologicalstress in macroalgae and blue mussels
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. (Marin ekotoxikologi)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tributyltin is a toxic compound that has been used in antifouling paint for boats andships. Due to the immediate toxic effects at very low concentrations it was banned in many countries in 1986. Due to its slow degradation it is expected to be stored in the sediment for many decades. This experiment simulated a small boat harbour with frequent resuspension events of TBT-contaminated sediment to measure the impacts onthe release, bioavailability and effects of tributyltin. Physiological stress responses were measured in two coastal species, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the red algaCeramium tenuicorne. Response variables measured were respiration, ammonia excretion, clearance rate and survival rate (for mussels) and growth inhibition (for thealga). Resuspension released both dissolved and particle-bound TBT to the surrounding water and made it bioavailable for both organisms. There was a clear toxic effect of the highest concentrations and it was evident that both mussels and algae showed a fasterand more negative response when the sediment was suspended. Repeated or continuous exposure to suspended TBT-contaminated sediment can exert a risk to the organisms living in environments such as harbours.

National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98407OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-98407DiVA: diva2:684729
Projects
Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM
Funder
Formas, 2006-1018
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-06 Last updated: 2014-01-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sediment resuspension: Impacts and extent of human disturbances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sediment resuspension: Impacts and extent of human disturbances
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Resuspension of sediment by anthropogenic disturbances is a concern due to the impacts it has on organisms and ecosystems. Bottom trawling is one major cause of sediment resuspension. A field study showed that a small trawl created a sediment plume 120 - 150 m wide and 15-18 m high (Paper 1). The sediment in the same study was highly contaminated. Blue mussels exposed to the sediment plume showed an increased uptake of contaminants and after 1 month reached levels toxic for human health (Paper 1). In the Baltic Proper, bottom trawling is the main cause of sediment suspension in waters >73 m, where resuspension by wind induced waves is minimal. Compared with dredging, bottom trawling annually resuspends 23-88 times more sediment in this area (Paper 4).

Bottom trawling is expanding to deeper waters where sediment resuspension is expected to have larger impacts on organisms compared with shallow water. Deep water sponges create important habitats that are attractive fishing grounds. A laboratory experiment (Paper 3) showed that deep water sponges had a rapid respiratory response to short exposure of elevated turbidity.

Boat activities in harbours are another major cause of sediment and contaminant remobilisation to the water column. A laboratory experiment showed that suspension of sediment with high TBT concentrations induced higher mortality in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, and faster growth inhibition of the alga Ceramium tenuicorne than unsuspended sediment (Paper 2).

This thesis clearly shows that resuspension due to human activities, in particular bottom trawling, is widespread and can have impacts on a range of organisms. However, there are large differences in management of these activities as they are covered by different legislative frameworks. When managing dredging, it is the most cited concern, whereas it is not considered in the management of bottom trawling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2014. 42 p.
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98640 (URN)978-91-7447-842-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-14, föreläsningssalen, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management (BEAM)
Funder
Formas, 2006-1018
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-01-23 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved

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