HOST PLANT UTILIZATION, HOST RANGE OSCILLATIONS AND DIVERSIFICATION IN NYMPHALID BUTTERFLIES: A PHYLOGENETIC INVESTIGATION
2014 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 1, 105-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the oscillation hypothesis. In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 68, no 1, 105-124 p.
Phenotypic plasticity, phylogenetics, plant-insect interaction, speciation
Ecology Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99865DOI: 10.1111/evo.12227ISI: 000328726700008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-99865DiVA: diva2:690648
FunderSwedish Research Council, 621-2011-5636