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Dispersal of bryophytes across landscapes
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dispersal, especially long-distance dispersal, is an important component in many disciplines within biology. Many species are passively dispersed by wind, not least spore-dispersed organisms.

In this thesis I investigated the dispersal capacity of bryophytes by studying the colonization patterns from local scales (100 m) to landscape scales (20 km). The dispersal distances were measured from a known source (up to 600 m away) or inferred from a connectivity measure (1–20 km). I introduced acidic clay to measure the colonization rates over one season of a pioneer moss, Discelium nudum (I–III). I also investigated which vascular plants and bryophytes that had colonized limed mires approximately 20–30 years after the first disturbance (IV).

Discelium effectively colonized new disturbed substrates over one season. Most spores were deposited up to 50 meters from a source but the relationship between local colonization rates and connectivity increased with distance up to 20 km (I–III). Also calcicolous wetland bryophyte species were good colonizers over similar distances, while vascular plants in the same environment colonized less frequently. Common bryophytes that produce spores frequently were more effective colonizers, while no effect of spore size was detected (IV). A mechanistic model that take into account meteorological parameters to simulate the trajectories for spores of Discelium nudum fitted rather well to the observed colonization pattern, especially if spore release thresholds in wind variation and humidity were accounted for (III).

This thesis conclude that bryophytes in open habitats can disperse effectively across landscapes given that the regional spore source is large enough (i.e. are common in the region and produce spores abundantly). For spore-dispersed organisms in open landscapes I suggest that it is often the colonization phase and not the transport that is the main bottle-neck for maintaining populations across landscapes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014. , 41 p.
Keyword [en]
anemochory, bryophytes, colonization, connectivity, diaspores, dispersal kernel, establishment, spore dispersal, long-distance dispersal, mechanistic model, mosses, realized dispersal, spore release, Lagrangian stochastic model, wind dispersal
National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100064ISBN: 978-91-7447-778-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-100064DiVA: diva2:691502
Public defence
2014-03-07, Stora föreläsningssalen, Institutionen för Ekologi, Miljö och Botanik, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papesr were unpublished and had  a status as follows: Paper 2: Epubl ahead of print; Paper 3: Manuscript; Paper 4: Manuscript

Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-01-25 Last updated: 2014-02-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The fate of the missing spores patterns of realized dispersal beyond the closest vicinity of a sporulating moss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The fate of the missing spores patterns of realized dispersal beyond the closest vicinity of a sporulating moss
2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, e41987- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well-known that many species with small diaspores can disperse far during extended temporal scales (many years). However, studies on short temporal scales usually only cover short distances (in, e.g., bryophytes up to 15 m). By using a novel experimental design, studying the realized dispersal, we extend this range by almost two orders of magnitude. We recorded establishment of the fast-growing moss Discelium nudum on introduced suitable substrates, placed around a translocated, sporulating mother colony. Around 2,000 pots with acidic clay were placed at different distances between 5 m and 600 m, in four directions, on a raised bog, with increased pot numbers with distance. The experiment was set up in April-May and the realized dispersal (number of colonized pots) was recorded in September. Close to the mother colony (up to 10 m), the mean colonization rates (ratio of colonized pots) exceeded 50%. At distances between 10 and 50 m colonization dropped sharply, but beyond 50 m the mean colonization rates stabilized and hardly changed (1-3%). The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m(2)) was realistic when compared to the estimated spore output from the central colonies. Our study supports calculations from earlier studies, limited to short distances, that a majority of the spores disperse beyond the nearest vicinity of a source. The even colonization pattern at further distances raises interesting questions about under what conditions spores are transported and deposited. However, it is clear that regular establishment is likely at the km-scale for this and many other species with similar spore output and dispersal mechanism.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81811 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0041987 (DOI)000306950200143 ()
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Production of diaspores at the landscape level regulates local colonization: an experiment with a spore-dispersed moss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of diaspores at the landscape level regulates local colonization: an experiment with a spore-dispersed moss
2014 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 37, no 6, 591-598 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective dispersal is crucial to species inhabiting transient substrates in order for them to be able to persist in a landscape. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, lichens and fungi all have wind-dispersed small diaspores and can be efficiently dispersed if their diaspores reach air masses above canopy height. However, empirical data on dispersal over landscape scales are scarce. We investigated how the colonization of an acrocarpous clay-inhabiting pioneer moss, Discelium nudum, varied between sites that differed in connectivity to potential dispersal sources at spatial scales from 1 to 20 km in a region in northern Sweden. We recorded the colonization on ˜25 introduced clay heaps at each of 14 experimental sites some months after the dispersal period. The colonization rate ranged from 0–82% and had a statistically significant relationship with a proxy for potential habitats (amount of clay-dominated soil) in a buffer of 20 km radius surrounding the experimental sites (and also weakly with the amount of substrate in a 10 km buffer). There were no significant relationships between colonization rate and connectivity at smaller scales (1 and 5 km). We made a rough estimate of the number of spores available for dispersal in a landscape, given the amount of clay-dominated soil, by recording the number of Discelium nudum colonies in two 25 × 25 km landscapes. The estimated available spore numbers in the different 20 km buffers were of the same order of magnitude as the deposition densities at the experimental sites calculated from the colonization rates. The results suggest that the spores of species with scattered occurrences and small diaspores (25 μm) in open landscapes can be deposited over extensive areas, at rates high enough to drive colonization patterns. This also implies that regional connectivity may be more important than local connectivity for these kinds of species.

National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100275 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00530.x (DOI)000337694100009 ()
Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Colonization patterns of a wind-dispersed moss in relation to modelled dispersal based on meteorological data.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colonization patterns of a wind-dispersed moss in relation to modelled dispersal based on meteorological data.
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100273 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2014-01-31
4. Calcicolous plants colonize limed mires after long-distance dispersal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calcicolous plants colonize limed mires after long-distance dispersal.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100272 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2014-01-31

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