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Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern at two sites in northern Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). (MIX)
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2014 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 2, 298-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bimonthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples (precipitation + dry particle) were taken for one year at an arctic (Abisko, 68°20’ N, 19°03’ E) and a sub-arctic (Krycklan 64°14’N, 19°46’E ) location in northern Sweden using Amberlite IRA- 743 as an absorbent for hydrophobic pollutants. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography – high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs = hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordane-related compounds), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging chemicals.  Higher deposition rates of most compounds were observed at the more northern site despite its receiving less precipitation and being more remote.  HCHs and PCBs made up the bulk of the total deposition at both sites.  Five emerging chemicals were detected: the current-use pesticides trifluralin and chlorothalonil; and non-BDE flame retardants 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and Dechlorane Plus (DP).  A decrease in the fraction of the anti isomer of DP was observed at the arctic site, indicating isomer-selective degradation or isomerization during long range transport.  Air parcel back trajectories revealed a greater influence from air originating over the ocean at the more northern site. The differences in these air sources were reflected in higher ΣHCH to ΣPCB ratios compared to the more southern site, as HCHs are related to volatilization from the ocean and Abisko is located <100 km from the Norwegian coast, while PCBs are emitted from continental sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 16, no 2, 298-305 p.
Keyword [en]
Persistent organic pollutants, atmospheric deposition, emerging chemicals, flame retardants, pesticides, PCB
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100210DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00590AISI: 000331504100014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-100210DiVA: diva2:692044
Note

Funding agencies:

Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-1454; Foundation in Memory of Oscar and Lili Lamm; European Union, 264600; European Community; International Incoming Fellowships, 252025; ECOCHANGE program of the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning; Umea University 

Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Legacy persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in Sweden: from indoor environments to remote areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Legacy persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in Sweden: from indoor environments to remote areas
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were taken every two months for a year in 2009-2010 at two sites in northern Sweden and analyzed for a suite of legacy and emerging persistent organic chemicals including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  and novel flame retardants (NFRs).  To further investigate the urban occurrence and contribution to remote contamination of flame retardants, indoor air, ventilation system air, and dust were sampled in several microenvironments in Stockholm during the winter of 2012 for analysis of PBDEs, isomer-specific hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and NFRs.  Outdoor air and soil samples were also sampled around the same time period for analysis of the same compounds.  Five emerging pollutants were detected in atmospheric deposition: the current-use pesticides trifluralin and chlorothalonil; and the NFRs 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis(tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and Dechlorane Plus (DP).  A decrease in the fraction of the anti isomer of DP was observed at the more remote site, indicating isomer-selective degradation or isomerization during long range atmospheric transport.  The more remote site also received more total deposition of organic pollutants despite its receiving less precipitation.  Although PBDEs and emerging organic pollutants were detected, the bulk of the deposition consisted of PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) at both sites.   Several NFRs were identified in indoor and ventilation air samples including TBECH, pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,2-bis(pentabromodiphenyl)ethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH).  There was no significant difference between concentrations of contaminants in ventilation system air and indoor air indicating that the flame retardants included in this study reach the outdoor environment via ventilation systems.  Dust and outdoor air samples have only been analyzed for HBCDDs so far.  HBCDD concentrations in apartments, offices, and schools were lower than reported concentrations for other countries in similar microenvironments.   However, an enrichment of α-HBCDD compared to γ-HBCDD was observed in dust taken from near treated products in stores when compared to dust taken directly from those products.  Very low concentrations of HBCDDs were detected in outdoor air.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2013. 20 p.
Keyword
persistent organic pollutants, atmospheric deposition, arctic, flame retardant, POP, long range transport
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97094 (URN)
Presentation
2013-12-19, Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600
Available from: 2014-01-23 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved
2. Occurrence and fate of emerging and legacy flame retardants: from indoor environments to remote areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and fate of emerging and legacy flame retardants: from indoor environments to remote areas
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals that can be found in various matrices in all corners of the planet, including remote areas such as the Arctic.  Several POPs are known and monitored but given the abundance of new chemicals in commerce about which little is known, chemicals that may be new POPs are constantly being screened for. The use of flame retardants, particularly brominated flame retardants (BFRs), has been increasing for decades. PBDEs and HBCDDs are two types of BFRs that have historically been used in large volumes but recently faced legislative restrictions. However, in order to meet fire safety standards, these BFRs have been replaced by a variety of emerging flame retardants (EFRs) about which little is known especially concerning their toxicity, production volumes, and environmental behavior. The main purpose of this thesis was to investigate the occurrence and fate in indoor and outdoor environments of several EFRs and compare them with PBDEs, HBCDDs, and legacy POPs.

Several indoor environments in the city of Stockholm, Sweden were sampled for dust, indoor air, and ventilation system air (Paper II).  Results from these samples revealed a number of EFRs that humans are exposed to and that are emitted from buildings through ventilation systems. These included DDC-CO, DBE-DBCH, PBT, HBB, EHTBB, and BEH-TEBP. PBDE levels seem to be declining compared to previous studies in Stockholm.  Outdoor air and soil were sampled across transects of Stockholm (Paper II) and Birmingham, United Kingdom (Paper III).  Results from these samples showed the presence of many of the same EFRs in the outdoor environment that were found in indoor environments.  Urban pulses in air were discovered for PBDEs in both cities and for some EFRs in Stockholm, indicating that the cities are sources of EFRs to the outdoor environment.  Atmospheric deposition samples were taken at two sites in northern Sweden (Paper I).  Three EFRs (DDC-CO, DBE-DBCH, and BTBPE) and two current-use pesticides (trifluralin and chlorothalonil) were identified, indicating these compounds’ potential for long range transport and global contamination.  Other legacy POPs such as HCH, PCBs, and PBDEs were measured in the deposition samples as well.  The bulk of deposition was comprised of HCH and PCBs with only minor contributions from PBDEs, chlordanes, and emerging compounds.  Finally, passive and active air sampling methods were compared for BFRs in offices in Beijing, China.  Some EFRs were identified in indoor air from China; however, BDE-209 was the most predominant compound found (Paper IV).  Air samples collected with passive samplers generally had measured FR concentrations within a factor of 2-3 of those collected with active samplers. The use of a GFF in the passive samplers resulted in concentrations of particle-bound contaminants such as BDE-209 that were more comparable to those in active samples. The positioning of the PUF in the passive samplers affected the sampling rates for gaseous compounds and particle retention on PUFs was shown to be a large source of uncertainty in passive sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2015. 34 p.
Keyword
Flame retardant, emerging, legacy, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDE, HBCDD, long range transport, dust, air, soil, atmospheric deposition
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116443 (URN)978-91-7649-132-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius Väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved

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