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Women in the Seascape: Gender, Livelihoods and Management of Coastal and Marine Resources in Zanzibar, East Africa
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All over the world, coastal populations depend on, and influence, the environment in pursue of their livelihoods. Managing the environment, while meeting the growing demand for marine resources, is a challenge. It further requires knowledge about all actors. Women's contribution is often overlooked in research, policy and management of marine and coastal resources. This thesis aims to reduce this gap; a gender analysis is applied to differentiate women and men's access and use of the seascape and to address key gender issues in coastal livelihoods in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Paper I shows that men are typically engaged in fisheries and have access to the whole seascape, whereas women engage in less economically viable activities, such as seaweed farming and invertebrate harvesting, in near-shore areas. A limitation for women to reach the whole seascape is a general lack of boat transport, swimming skills and fishing gear. Paper II analyzes occupational health within seaweed farming and shows that women seaweed farmers suffer from a variety of problems, such as eye infections, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory problems and fatigue, because of poor working conditions. Paper III addresses social and ecological aspects of invertebrate harvesting. This activity lacks proper management and over a five-year period (2005 to 2010), invertebrate abundance and species richness have decreased. It also reveals gender disparities in access to invertebrate collecting grounds and species of higher economic value. Paper IV examines gender within fish trade; women traders have less access to markets, high-value fish, a diverse customer-base, cold-storing facilities and fish trade associations. Income data shows that women's income is always lower. The management system is found to be androcentric and this thesis thus argues for the need to look at the "bigger picture"; the whole seascape, both men and women, and their interests should be considered in coastal and marine management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm Univeristy , 2014. , 69 p.
Keyword [en]
Gender, fisheries, invertebrate harvesting, seaweed farming, coastal and marine management
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100576ISBN: 978-91-7447-829-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-100576DiVA: diva2:694553
Public defence
2014-03-14, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-06 Last updated: 2014-09-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Taking gender seriously in natural resource management - an example using marine spatial planning in tropical seascapes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taking gender seriously in natural resource management - an example using marine spatial planning in tropical seascapes
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100574 (URN)
Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-02-06 Last updated: 2014-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Seaweed mariculture as a development project in Zanzibar, East Africa: A price too high to pay?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seaweed mariculture as a development project in Zanzibar, East Africa: A price too high to pay?
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2012 (English)In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 356, 30-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seaweed mariculture has been promoted as a development project in tropical countries and Zanzibar, Tanzania, is commonly presented as a successful story. However, the results of the present research provide a nuanced picture of the activity identifying serious health problems among farmers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with female seaweed farmers (n=140) and non-seaweed farmers (n=140) in Zanzibar to evaluate health and working conditions. In-depth interviews with additional 28 female seaweed farmers were performed to deepen the understanding of the working conditions and related problems. The research was undertaken at seven different locations to cover areas where seaweed is extensively executed during August to September 2009 and May to June 2010. Seaweed farmers considered their health significantly poorer than non-seaweed farmers with fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, hunger, respiratory problems, eye related problems, injuries from hazardous animals and sharp shells in the water and allergies as the most serious issues (p<0.05). Income was further reported below the extreme poverty line. Since seaweed farming affects thousands of households in the tropics these results should encourage changes towards better working conditions and sustainability.

Keyword
Tropical developing countries, Seaweed farming, Poor working conditions, Health problems, Zanzibar, Euchema denticulatum
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Resources Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-78443 (URN)10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.05.039 (DOI)000306171100005 ()
Available from: 2012-07-04 Created: 2012-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Towards Improved Management of Tropical Invertebrate Fisheries: Including Time Series and Gender
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Improved Management of Tropical Invertebrate Fisheries: Including Time Series and Gender
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, e91161- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/ collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102962 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0091161 (DOI)000332839300086 ()
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Fish Traders as Key Actors in Fisheries: Gender and Adaptive Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fish Traders as Key Actors in Fisheries: Gender and Adaptive Management
2013 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 8, 951-962 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women’s reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar’s management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

Keyword
Fish value chain, Fish market, Gender analysis, Middlemen, Small-scale fisheries, Zanzibar
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Resources Management; Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-96178 (URN)10.1007/s13280-013-0451-1 (DOI)000326892600005 ()
Available from: 2013-11-13 Created: 2013-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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