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Detailed study of distribution patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isocyanates under different fire conditions
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 1, 125-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study has examined the distribution patterns between gas phase and particle phase of some chemical compounds produced in fires. It has also addressed the question of the distribution of individual particle-associated species between the different size-ranges of particles. The chemical compounds studied and discussed in this paper are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and isocyanates. The steady-state tube furnace, ISO/TS 19700, was chosen as the physical fire model in order to study the production of particles from different types of fire exposure, that is, oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated flaming fires and under-ventilated flaming post-flashover fires. Two materials were chosen for investigation, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) carpet and a wood board. The particle production from the two materials investigated varied concerning both the amounts produced and the particle size distributions. The analysis of PAHs showed that volatile PAHs were generally dominant. However, when the toxicity of the individual species was taken into account, the relative importance between volatile and particle-associated PAHs shifted the dominance to particle-bound PAH for both materials. The substantial degradation in the tests of the low polyurethane content of the PVC carpet, and the (4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate)-based binder in the wood board resulted in no or very small amount of quantifiable diisocyanates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 38, no 1, 125-144 p.
Keyword [en]
particles, aerosol, size distribution, PAH, isocyanates, ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100869DOI: 10.1002/fam.2173ISI: 000329855700010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-100869DiVA: diva2:697613
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-02-18 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Isocyanates - methodology for gas and particle generation, sampling and detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isocyanates - methodology for gas and particle generation, sampling and detection
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Isocyanates are mainly used in the industry for the production of polyurethane (PUR) plastics. Workers are at risk of being exposed during the manufacturing of PUR. During thermal degradation of PUR, isocyanates are released and workers involved in hot work such as fire-fighting, welding etc. may also be exposed.

Isocyanates are known to cause allergic diseases and are the most common cause of occupational asthma. Some of the isocyanates used are suspected human carcinogens. Exposure among workers occurs frequently.

Isocyanates are reactive unstable compounds that need to be converted to stabile derivatives immediately during sampling to avoid underestimation of the exposure. Di-n-ButylAmine (DBA) was used as derivatising reagent to form stable urea derivatives. The DBA derivatives were analysed using LC-MS/MS.

In this thesis a novel technology for the direct monitoring of isocyanates using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is presented. Advancement of technology for the generation of isocyanates in an environmental chamber, dry sampling, particle-size fractionated sampling and the testing of respirator filter cartridges are described.

The dry sampler was demonstrated to be robust and enabled sampling up to 32 h. Precise sampling without the need of field extraction was made possible.

The particle-size fractionated sampling efficiently separated gas-phase and respirable particle-borne isocyanates (< 4µm in diameter).

Two personal protective respirator filter cartridges were studied. No trend of impaired performance for mono-isocyanates throughout 48-h exposure tests was found.

The distribution patterns, in a steady-state tube-furnace oven, between gas phase and different particle-phase fractions of isocyanates produced in fires were investigated. The substantial degradation of a PVC-carpet containing PUR and a wood board with a MDI based binder resulted mainly in the formation of high levels of monoisocyanates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2012. 107 p.
Keyword
Isocyanate, PUR, Dry sampler, PTR-MS, Transfer line, PPE, Environmental Chamber, Respirable Particles, Denuder Impactor, Aerosol, Particles, Impinger, air sampling, LC-MS, di-n-butylamine, DBA, ICA, MIC, HDI, TDI, IPDI, MDI, Occupational Exposure, Exposure, Occupational Health
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79501 (URN)978-91-7447-556-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-05, Vita salen, Hässleholm Kulturhus, Vattugatan 18/Järnvägsgatan 23, Hässleholm, Hässleholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 5: Accepted.

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2014-03-17Bibliographically approved

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