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In-vitro biocompatibility of CoCrMo dental alloys fabricated by selective laser melting
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
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2014 (English)In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 30, no 5, 525-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Selective laser melting (SLM) is increasingly used for the fabrication of customized dental components made of metal alloys such as CoCrMo. The main aim of the present study is to elucidate the influence of the non-equilibrium microstructure obtained by SLM on corrosion susceptibility and extent of metal release (measure of biocompatibility).Methods: A multi-analytical approach has been employed by combining microscopic and bulk compositional tools with electrochemical techniques and chemical analyses of metals in biologically relevant fluids for three differently SLM fabricated CoCrMo alloys and one cast CoCrMo alloy used for comparison.Results: Rapid cooling and strong temperature gradients during laser melting resulted in the formation of a fine cellular structure with cell boundaries enriched in Mo (Co depleted), and suppression of carbide precipitation and formation of a martensitic ε (hcp) phase at the surface. These features were shown to improve the corrosion and metal release susceptibility of the SLM alloys compared with the cast alloy. Unique textures formed in the pattern of the melting pools of the three different laser melted CoCrMo alloys predominantly explain observed small, though significant, differences. The susceptibility for corrosion and metal release increased with an increased number (area) of laser melt pool boundaries.Significance: This study shows that integrative and interdisciplinary studies of microstructural characteristics, corrosion, and metal release are essential to combine and consider during the design and fabrication of CoCrMo dental components of optimal biocompatibility. The reason is that metal release from CoCrMo alloys is dependent on the fabrication procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 30, no 5, 525-534 p.
Keyword [en]
Selective laser melting, additive manufacturing, CoCrMo, cobalt, chromium, protein, metal release, corrosion, microstructure
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-101055DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2014.02.008ISI: 000334585200010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-101055DiVA: diva2:698558
Available from: 2014-02-24 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Laser sintered materials with Non-equilibrium structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser sintered materials with Non-equilibrium structures
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is focused on achieving materials with non-equilibrium structures fabricated by high-energy laser sintering. The chosen precursor materials have rigid and inert structures like high-melting point ceramics or metals. It was necessary to use real-time monitoring of temperature and spectrum profiles for selecting the optimal laser parameters for the laser sintering process. This monitoring was done by an off-axial setup that also controls the surface morphologies during the laser irradiation process. The laser focal spot receives very high temperatures and subsequent extreme cooling rates within a short time period. New non-equilibrium structures will emerge ruled by kinetics, huge temperature gradients or stresses and freeze by quenching in solid state. These material structures were found to form at different length scales from nano- to macro-level, frequently by a hierarchical ordering. This opens a method to engineer materials with both hierarchical and non-equilibrium structures by a single operation in both metal and ceramics by laser sintering. In the Co-Cr-Mo alloy system, structures on three levels of lengths were observed, namely i) nano-level structures dominated by the grain boundary segregation; ii) micron-level structures characterized by the interlocked clusters of columns; and iii) macro-level structures defined by the selected laser scan patterns. The non-equilibrium structures of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy are related to mechanical, corrosion and bio-compatibility properties. In ZrO2 ceramics, the final product had a non-equilibrium nano- and micron-sized structure created by uneven absorption of laser energy and rupture. The structure inside the micron-sized grains is formed through ordered coalescence of nano-crystals. Properties of the laser sintered materials were established and related to the observed structures. The materials properties might be tailored by controlling the structures in different levels and potential applications of the new materials will be given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2014. 61 p.
Keyword
Laser sintering, Materials, Non-equilibrium structures, microstructure, hierarchical structure
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-101096 (URN)978-91-7447-866-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-31, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Submitted. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-03-09 Created: 2014-02-25 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved

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