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Sampling of Respirable Isocyanate Particles
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry. Institutet för Kemisk Analys Norden AB, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry. Institutet för Kemisk Analys Norden AB, Sweden.
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2014 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 58, no 3, 340-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An advanced design of a denuder impactor (DI) sampler has been developed for characterization of possible airborne isocyanate exposure in different particle size fractions. The sampler is equipped with 12 different parallel denuder tubes, 4 impaction stages with the cut-off values (d50) of: 9.5, 4, 2.5 and 1 µm, and an end filter that collects particles < 1 µm. All collecting parts were impregnated with di-n-butylamine DBA as the reagent in a mixture with acetic acid. The performance of the DI sampler was studied on a standard atmosphere containing gas and particulate isocyanates. The isocyanate atmosphere was generated by liquid permeation of 2,4-, 2,6-Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI), 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI) and Isophorone Diisocyanate (IPDI). 4,4’-Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) particles were generated by heating of technical MDI and condensing the mixture of gas and particle-borne MDI in an atmosphere containing mixed salt particles. The study was performed in a 0.85 m3 environmental chamber with stainless steel walls. With the advancement of the DI sampler it is now possible to collect isocyanate particle samples for up to 320min. The performance of the DI sampler is essentially unaffected by the humidity. The DI sampler and the ASSET™ EZ4-NCO sampler (Sigma-Aldrich/Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA) gave similar results. Sample losses within the DI sampler are low. In the environmental chamber it was observed that the particle distribution may be affected by the humidity and ageing. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to separate a flow of selected fractions containing MDI particles from mixed MDI and salt particles. The particle-size distribution had a maximum at about 300nm, but later in the environmental chamber 1 µm dominated. The distribution was very different as compared to with only NaCl or MDI present. The biological relevance for studying isocyanate nano particles is significant as these have the possibility to reach the lower airways where allergic reactions may occur. SMPS and isocyanate air sampling can be used for the investigation of isocyanate nano particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, no 3, 340-354 p.
Keyword [en]
aerosol, air sampling, DBA, denuder, impactor, isocyanate, respirable
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-101552DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/met067ISI: 000333046700007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-101552DiVA: diva2:704126
Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Isocyanates - methodology for gas and particle generation, sampling and detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isocyanates - methodology for gas and particle generation, sampling and detection
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Isocyanates are mainly used in the industry for the production of polyurethane (PUR) plastics. Workers are at risk of being exposed during the manufacturing of PUR. During thermal degradation of PUR, isocyanates are released and workers involved in hot work such as fire-fighting, welding etc. may also be exposed.

Isocyanates are known to cause allergic diseases and are the most common cause of occupational asthma. Some of the isocyanates used are suspected human carcinogens. Exposure among workers occurs frequently.

Isocyanates are reactive unstable compounds that need to be converted to stabile derivatives immediately during sampling to avoid underestimation of the exposure. Di-n-ButylAmine (DBA) was used as derivatising reagent to form stable urea derivatives. The DBA derivatives were analysed using LC-MS/MS.

In this thesis a novel technology for the direct monitoring of isocyanates using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is presented. Advancement of technology for the generation of isocyanates in an environmental chamber, dry sampling, particle-size fractionated sampling and the testing of respirator filter cartridges are described.

The dry sampler was demonstrated to be robust and enabled sampling up to 32 h. Precise sampling without the need of field extraction was made possible.

The particle-size fractionated sampling efficiently separated gas-phase and respirable particle-borne isocyanates (< 4µm in diameter).

Two personal protective respirator filter cartridges were studied. No trend of impaired performance for mono-isocyanates throughout 48-h exposure tests was found.

The distribution patterns, in a steady-state tube-furnace oven, between gas phase and different particle-phase fractions of isocyanates produced in fires were investigated. The substantial degradation of a PVC-carpet containing PUR and a wood board with a MDI based binder resulted mainly in the formation of high levels of monoisocyanates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2012. 107 p.
Keyword
Isocyanate, PUR, Dry sampler, PTR-MS, Transfer line, PPE, Environmental Chamber, Respirable Particles, Denuder Impactor, Aerosol, Particles, Impinger, air sampling, LC-MS, di-n-butylamine, DBA, ICA, MIC, HDI, TDI, IPDI, MDI, Occupational Exposure, Exposure, Occupational Health
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79501 (URN)978-91-7447-556-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-05, Vita salen, Hässleholm Kulturhus, Vattugatan 18/Järnvägsgatan 23, Hässleholm, Hässleholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 5: Accepted.

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2014-03-17Bibliographically approved

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