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The utility gain of leaving professional judgment outside of prediction: Clinical versus mechanical interpretation of GMA and personality
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this study was to analyze and illustrate the margin utility of using clinical versus mechanical data combination for personnel selection purposes using measures of personality and general mental ability as predictors of job performance.

Design/methodology/approach – By utilizing meta-analytic estimates for personality and general mental ability to predict job performance, and for clinical versus mechanical data combination predicting work criteria, utility analysis was applied to estimate the margin utility between data combination approach for different selection scenarios.

Findings – The findings indicate that in a selection context, the difference in financial outcome is likely to be extensive between the two data combination methods. The gain in utility of combining data mechanically corresponds to an amount likely to represent the difference between failure and success for many organizations.

Implications – This comparison provide professionals with the opportunity to gain insight into the difference in financial outcome of applying data combination method and by that increase the likelihood of acceptance and use of the mechanical approach. It also provides the reader with an example of how to utilize estimates provided by research, how to apply them for data combination purposes, and how to estimate the margin utility in their own selection practice.

Originality/value – This is the first study to illustrate the superiority of mechanical data combination compared to clinical for job performance and selection purposes in financial terms.

Keyword [en]
Utility, mechanical data combination, clinical data combination, personality, general mental ability, personnel selection, prediction, job performance
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-101973OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-101973DiVA: diva2:706082
Available from: 2014-03-18 Created: 2014-03-18 Last updated: 2014-03-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Utilizing research in the practice of personnel selection: General mental ability, personality, and job performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilizing research in the practice of personnel selection: General mental ability, personality, and job performance
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Identifying and hiring the highest performers is essential for organizations to remain competitive. Research has provided effective guidelines for this but important aspects of these evidence-based processes have yet to gain acceptance among practitioners. The general aim of this thesis was to help narrowing the gap between research and practice concerning personnel selection decisions. The first study compared the validity estimates of general mental ability (GMA) and the five factor model of personality traits as predictors of job performance, finding that, when the recently developed indirect correction for range restriction was applied, GMA was an even stronger predictor of job performance than previously found, while the predictive validity of the personality traits remained at similar levels. The approach used for data collection and combination is crucial to forming an overall assessment of applicants for selection decisions and has a great impact on the validity of the decision. The second study compared the financial outcomes of applying a mechanical or clinical approach to combining predictor scores. The results showed that the mechanical approach can result in a substantial increase in overall utility. The third study examined the potential influences that practitioners’ cognitive decision-making style, accountability for the assessment process, and responsibility for the selection decision had on their hiring approach preferences. The results showed that practitioners scoring high on intuitive decision-making style preferred a clinical hiring approach, while the contextual aspects did not impact practitioners’ preferences. While more research may be needed on practitioner preferences for a particular approach, the overall results of this thesis support and strengthen the predictive validity of GMA and personality traits, and indicate that the mechanical approach to data combination provides increased utility for organizations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 2014. 77 p.
Keyword
Personnel selection, job performance, correction for range restriction, general mental ability, personality, clinical and mechanical data collection, clinical and mechanical data combination, utility, preference for hiring approach
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-101976 (URN)978-91-7447-883-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-25, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-03-18 Last updated: 2014-04-22Bibliographically approved

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