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A review of sea-spray aerosol source functions using a large global set of sea salt aerosol concentration measurements
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Norway; Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). University of Helsinki, Finland.
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2014 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 3, 1277-1297 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sea-spray aerosols (SSA) are an important part of the climate system because of their effects on the global radiative budget - both directly as scatterers and absorbers of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) influencing cloud formation, lifetime, and precipitation. In terms of their global mass, SSA have the largest uncertainty of all aerosols. In this study we review 21 SSA source functions from the literature, several of which are used in current climate models. In addition, we propose a new function. Even excluding outliers, the global annual SSA mass produced spans roughly 3-70 Pg yr(-1) for the different source functions, for particles with dry diameter D-p < 10 mu m, with relatively little interannual variability for a given function. The FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model was run in backward mode for a large global set of observed SSA concentrations, comprised of several station networks and ship cruise measurement campaigns. FLEXPART backward calculations produce gridded emission sensitivity fields, which can subsequently be multiplied with gridded SSA production fluxes in order to obtain modeled SSA concentrations. This allowed us to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate all 21 source functions against the measurements. Another advantage of this method is that source-region information on wind speed and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) could be stored and used for improving the SSA source function parameterizations. The best source functions reproduced as much as 70% of the observed SSA concentration variability at several stations, which is comparable with state of the art aerosol models. The main driver of SSA production is wind, and we found that the best fit to the observation data could be obtained when the SSA production is proportional to U-10(3.5), where U-10 is the source region averaged 10m wind speed. A strong influence of SST on SSA production, with higher temperatures leading to higher production, could be detected as well, although the underlying physical mechanisms of the SST influence remains unclear. Our new source function with wind speed and temperature dependence gives a global SSA production for particles smaller than D-p < 10 mu m of 9 Pg yr(-1), and is the best fit to the observed concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 14, no 3, 1277-1297 p.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102492DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-1277-2014ISI: 000332384900009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-102492DiVA: diva2:710474
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2014-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work has been to quantify important processes for climatically relevant aerosols, and to improve our understanding of, and ability to accurately model, aerosols in the atmosphere on a large scale. This thesis contains five papers focused on different parts of the life cycle of atmospheric aerosol particles. Two papers describe the physical process of emission of primary marine aerosols. The large uncertainties in these processes are demonstrated by examining the diversity of existing parameterizations for emissions. Building from laboratory experiments to validation of model results with observations, new parameterizations are suggested. These take into account also effects of water temperature on primary marine aerosol production. In the third paper the main focus was to develop a new aerosol wet removal scheme in the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART. Removal timescales and atmospheric concentrations are found to be close to observation based estimates. The final two papers focus on atmospheric black carbon aerosols at high latitudes. As an example of increased human activities in the Arctic, local emissions from cruise ships visiting the research base in Ny Ålesund had demonstrable effects on the level of pollutants measured there. In contrast, inland Antarctic air was shown to be clean compared to the Arctic, due to the extremely long transport time from any major aerosol sources. The work done in this thesis has addressed critical uncertainties regarding the aerosol lifecycle, by better constraining aerosol emissions and atmospheric lifetimes. The development of the new wet removal scheme has improved FLEXPART model accuracy, which will be beneficial in future applications of the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2017. 54 p.
Keyword
aerosol, aerosol removal, aerosol emission, aerosol sources, FLEXPART, Arctic aerosol
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-138903 (URN)978-91-7649-669-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-670-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2017-02-16Bibliographically approved

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