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The Work and Social Adjustment Scale as a Measure of Dysfunction in Chronic Insomnia: Reliability and Validity
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Örebro University, Sweden.
2014 (English)In: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 42, no 2, 186-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dysfunction is an integral part of chronic insomnia. Despite this, very little effort has yet been made to design and psychometrically validate an insomnia-specific measure of dysfunction. Aims: The purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) as a measure of dysfunction in chronic insomnia. Method: Seventy-three patients with chronic insomnia from three subsamples participated. All the patients completed the WSAS, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and sleep diaries over one week. Results: An exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution for the WSAS, determining dysfunction, accounting for 73.7% of the variance. The internal consistency of the WSAS was alpha = .91. The test-retest reliability for the WSAS items was high at .90-.99 and for the entire scale .99. A cut-off at 17 points was established, discriminating those with subclinical versus moderate or severe clinical insomnia (88% sensitivity and 78% specificity). Evidence of convergent and criterion validity was documented via (1) a significant, positive association between the WSAS and ISI and (2) a higher WSAS score among those with severe clinical insomnia, relative to those with moderate clinical and subthreshold insomnia, as well as a higher WSAS score among those with moderate clinical insomnia relative to those with subthreshold insomnia. The WSAS was also shown to be a treatment-sensitive measure for insomnia patients. Conclusions: The WSAS appears as a reliable and valid measure of dysfunction in chronic insomnia. Additional advantages are its shortness, easiness, and treatment-sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 42, no 2, 186-198 p.
Keyword [en]
dysfunction, impairment, Insomnia, scale
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102967DOI: 10.1017/S135246581200104XISI: 000332448300005OAI: diva2:714749


Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved

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Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
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