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An investigation into ocean thermodynamics and water-mass transformation
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents oceanic budgets of potential temperature, salinity and buoyancy as well as a novel way of diagnosing water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space. The buoyancy of seawater is given by a nonlinear function of temperature, salinity and pressure and much of the work in this thesis revolves around how fluxes of heat and salinity influence the buoyancy of seawater through these nonlinearities.

Another large part of the material in this thesis is aimed at quantifying the relative importance of different processes for the vertical transport of heat and salinity in the ocean. Careful analysis of those fluxes in an ocean model reveal the different effects of e.g. advection, diffusion and penetrative shortwave radiation. An interesting finding is that the diffusive fluxes due to isoneutral diffusion (diffusion along density surfaces) and dianeutral diffusion (diffusion across density surfaces) have opposing effects on the oceanic heat and salinity budgets.

The final major topic of this thesis is water-mass transformation. A quantitative framework for the study of water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space is introduced. A continuity equation is also derived for salinity-temperature space, which can be used to calculate the time rate of change of volume in a small salinity-temperature interval. The water-mass transformation framework is applied in an ocean general circulation model, and it is shown how the volume distribution in salinity-temperature space is affected by the different tracer fluxes in the model. It is also shown how the transformation framework is related to earlier work on thermohaline streamfunctions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockhom: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University , 2014. , 43 p.
Keyword [en]
Ocean thermodynamics, water-mass transformation, buoyancy
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103040ISBN: 978-91-7447-919-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-103040DiVA: diva2:714774
Public defence
2014-06-03, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-05-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The buoyancy budget with a nonlinear equation of state
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The buoyancy budget with a nonlinear equation of state
2013 (English)In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 43, no 1, 176-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nonlinear equation of state of seawater introduces a sink or source of buoyancy when water parcels of unequal salinities and temperatures are mixed. This article contains quantitative estimates of these nonlinear effects on the buoyancy budget of the global ocean. It is shown that the interior buoyancy sink can be determined from surface buoyancy fluxes. These surface buoyancy fluxes are calculated using two surface heat flux climatologies, one based on in situ measurements and the other on a reanalysis, in both cases using a nonlinear equation of state. It is also found that the buoyancy budget in the ocean general circulation model Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean (NEMO) is in good agreement with the buoyancy budgets based on the heat flux climatologies. Moreover, an examination of the vertically resolved buoyancy budget in NEMO shows that in large parts of the ocean the nonlinear buoyancy sink gives the largest contribution to this budget.

National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-88327 (URN)10.1175/JPO-D-12-063.1 (DOI)000314179300013 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-4400
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2013-03-18 Created: 2013-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. The budgets of heat and salinity in NEMO
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The budgets of heat and salinity in NEMO
2013 (English)In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 67, 28-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The near steady state heat and salinity budgets under surfaces of constant depth are examined in the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. It is seen that the heat fluxes in NEMO are difficult to reconcile with the idea of a deep ocean in advection-diffusion balance. Some reasons for this are that the resolved heat advection is downward above 2000 m, and that geothermal heating is, in fact, a major heat source in the deeper parts of the domain. It is also seen that isoneutral diffusion gives a very large contribution to the budgets and that the fluxes from isoneutral diffusion is in general upward. It is explained how the sign of these fluxes depends on the stratification. The heat budget for the upper 100 m of the ocean is seen to be dominated by penetrative shortwave radiation, which is so influential that we would have a mixed layer of considerable thickness even in the absence of other sources of turbulent mixing. Penetrative shortwave radiation is therefore a considerable source of potential energy.

Keyword
Heat budget, Salinity budget, NEMO, Isoneutral diffusion, Shortwave penetration
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-92261 (URN)10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.03.006 (DOI)000320477100003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-4400
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2013-07-25 Created: 2013-07-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water-mass transformation in salinity-temperature space
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103214 (URN)10.1175/JPO-D-13-0257.1 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-12-15
4. A note on the influence of spatially varying diffusivities on the evolution of buoyancy with a nonlinear equation of state
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A note on the influence of spatially varying diffusivities on the evolution of buoyancy with a nonlinear equation of state
2014 (English)In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 44, no 12, 3255-3261 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The oceanic buoyancy sinks from thermobaricity and cabbeling are quantified using hydrography and parameterized diffusive fluxes of heat and salt. A novelty in this study is that the effect of spatially varying diffusivities is considered and quantified. The spatial distribution as well as averages from different ocean basins of the cabbeling and thermobaricity sinks are shown and discussed. The contributions from isoneutral and dianeutral diffusion to the cabbeling and thermobaricity sinks are calculated separately, and their relative importance is seen to vary in the different ocean basins.

National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103216 (URN)10.1175/JPO-D-13-0262.1 (DOI)000345812300017 ()
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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