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Speleothem evidence for late Holocene climate variability and floods in Southern Greece
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
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2014 (English)In: Quaternary Research, ISSN 0033-5894, E-ISSN 1096-0287, Vol. 81, no 2, 213-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present stable isotope data (delta O-18, delta C-13) from a detrital rich stalagmite from Kapsia Cave, the Peloponnese, Greece. The cave is rich in archeological remains and there are reasons to believe that flooding of the cave has directly affected humans using the cave. Using a combination of U-Th and C-14 dating to constrain a site-specific correction factor for (Th-232/U-238) detrital molar ratio, a linear age model was constructed. The age model shows that the stalagmite grew during the period from ca. 950 BC to ca. AD 830. The stable oxygen record from Kapsia indicates cyclical changes of close to 500 yr in precipitation amount, with rapid shifts towards wetter conditions followed by slowly developing aridity. Superimposed on this signal, wetter conditions are inferred around 850, 700, 500 and 400-100 BC, and around AD 160-300 and AD 770; and driest conditions are inferred to have occurred around 450 BC, AD 100-150 and AD 650. Detrital horizons in the stalagmite indicate that three major floods took place in the cave at 500 BC, 70 BC and AD 450. The stable carbon isotope record reflects changes in biological activity being a result of both climate and human activities. (c) 2014 University of Washington.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 81, no 2, 213-227 p.
Keyword [en]
Mediterranean, Southern Greece, late Holocene, Stalagmite, Stable isotopes, Climate variability, Flooding history, Hellenistic period
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103998DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2013.12.009ISI: 000334154300005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-103998DiVA: diva2:720876
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2014-06-02 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Climate in the eastern Mediterranean during the Holocene and beyond – A Peloponnesian perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate in the eastern Mediterranean during the Holocene and beyond – A Peloponnesian perspective
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis contributes increased knowledge about climate variability during the late Quaternary in the eastern Mediterranean. Results from a paleoclimate review reveal that regional wetter conditions from 6000 to 5400 years BP were replaced by a less wet period from 5400 to 4600 years BP and to fully arid conditions around 4600 years BP. The data available, however, show that there is not enough evidence to support the notion of a widespread climate event with rapidly drying conditions in the region around 4200 years ago. The review further highlights the lack of paleoclimate data from the archaeologically rich Peloponnese Peninsula. This gap is addressed in this thesis by the provision of new paleoclimate records from the Peloponnese. One stalagmite from Kapsia Cave and two stalagmites from Glyfada Cave were dated and analyzed for stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes. The Glyfada record covers a period from ~78 ka to ~37 ka and shows that the climate in this region responded rapidly to changes in temperatures over Greenland. During Greenland stadial (interstadial) conditions colder (warmer) and drier (wetter) conditions are reflected by depleted (enriched) δ13C-values in the speleothems. The Kapsia record covers a period from ~2900 to ~1100 years BP. A comparison between the modern stalagmite top isotopes and meteorological data shows that a main control on stalagmite δ18O is wet season precipitation amount. The δ18O record from Kapsia indicates cyclical humidity changes of close to 500 years, with rapid shifts toward wetter conditions followed by slowly developing aridity. Superimposed on this signal is a centennial signal of precipitation variability. A second speleothem from Kapsia with multiple horizons of fine sediments from past flood events intercalated with the calcite is used to develop a new, quick and non-destructive method for tracing flood events in speleothems by analyzing a thick section with an XRF core scanner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, 2014. 52 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 45
Keyword
Stable isotopes, U-Th dating, stalagmites, climate variability, flooding history, eastern Mediterranean, southern Greece, Holocene, Pleistocene
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108046 (URN)978-91-7447-995-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-14, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Accepted.

Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2015-10-19Bibliographically approved

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