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A conductive ZnO-ZnGaON nanowire-array-on-a film photoanode for stable and efficient sunlight water splitting
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
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2014 (English)In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 7, no 5, 1693-1699 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report highly stable and efficient sunlight water splitting on a ZnO-ZnGaON nanowire-array-on-a-film photoanode without the assistance of any co-catalyst. The single crystalline ZnO-ZnGaON nanowirearray- on-a-film photoanode was synthesized via a high-temperature vapor-phase diffusion reaction of gallium (Ga) and nitrogen (N) on a single crystal domain ZnO nanowire-array-on-a-film structure. The synthesized ZnO-ZnGaON photoanode offers visible light absorption through N incorporation, improved electrical conductivity via Ga incorporation, and structural advantages with the high-aspect-ratio nanowire array. Compared to the chemically unstable ZnO nanowire photoanode, the ZnO-ZnGaON nanowire photoanode significantly improves the anti-photocorrosive ability for water splitting. A highly stable photocurrent density of similar to 1.5 mA cm(-2) is obtained with the ZnO-ZnGaON nanowire photoanode at an applied bias of 0.8 V-RHE under continuous sunlight illumination over five hours without noticeable degradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 7, no 5, 1693-1699 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-104130DOI: 10.1039/c3ee43806fISI: 000335013700018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-104130DiVA: diva2:721170
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structural study of nano-structured materials: electron crystallography approaches
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural study of nano-structured materials: electron crystallography approaches
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The structural analysis serves as a bridge to link the structure of materials to their properties. Revealing the structure details allows a better understanding on the growth mechanisms and properties of materials, and a further designed synthesis of functional materials. The widely used methods based on X-ray diffraction have certain limitations for the structural analysis when crystals are small, poorly crystallized or contain many defects. As electrons interact strongly with matter and can be focused by electromagnetic lenses to form an image, electron crystallography (EC) approaches become prime candidates for the structural analysis of a wide range of materials that cannot be done using X-rays, particularly nanomaterials with poor crystallinity.

Three-dimensional electron diffraction tomography (3D EDT) is a recently developed method to automatically collect 3D electron diffraction data. By combining mechanical specimen tilt and electronic e-beam tilt, a large volume of reciprocal space can be swept at a fine step size to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the diffraction data with respect to both position and intensity. Effects of the dynamical scattering are enormously reduced as most of the patterns are collected at conditions off the zone axes. In this thesis, 3D EDT has been used for unit cell determination (COF-505), phase identifications and structure solutions (ZnO, Ba-Ta3N5, Zn-Sc, and V4O9), and the study of layer stacking faults (ETS-10 and SAPO-34 nanosheets).

High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) imaging shows its particular advantages over diffraction by allowing observations of crystal structure projections and the 3D potential map reconstruction. HRTEM imaging has been used to visualize fine structures of different materials (hierarchical zeolites, ETS-10, and SAPO-34). Reconstructed 3D potential maps have been used to locate the positions of metal ions in a woven framework (COF-505) and elucidate the pore shape and connectivity in a silica mesoporous crystal.

The last part of this thesis explores the combination with X-ray crystallography to obtain more structure details.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2016. 101 p.
Keyword
structural analysis, electron crystallography, 3D EDT, HRTEM imaging, defects
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129233 (URN)978-91-7649-425-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-08, Magnéli Hall, Arrhenius Laboratory, Svante arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 1486801
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-02-23Bibliographically approved

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